Chapter 5. Digestive System - Medical Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5. Digestive System - Medical Terms Deck (167):
1

absorption

passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine and into the bloodstream

2

achlorhydria

absence of hydrocholoric acid from the gastric juice

3

amino acids

the chief constituents of proteins, these are acids that contribute to protein synthesis; amino acids are formed when large protein molecules are digested

4

amylase

the enzyme that digests or breaks down starch into simple substance

5

anastomosis

an opening between two tublular organs

6

anus

the opening of the rectum to the outside of the body

7

appendectomy

removal or excision of the appendix

8

appendicitis

inflammation of the appendix

9

appendix

small, slender sac near the beginning of the colon in the RLQ of the abdomen

10

bile

yellow or organ fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; it travels from the gallbladder into the small intestines to help digest fats

11

biliary

pertaining to bile or affecting the bile ducts; bile ducts empty bile into the small intestine (duodenum)

12

bilirubin

a yellow-orange pigment found in bile

13

bowel

intestine; the large bowel is called the colon and the small bowel is the small intestine

14

buccal mucosa

mucous membrane lining the cheek

15

canine teeth

four point, dog-like teeth; each canine or cusped tooth is third from the midline of the jaw

16

cecal

pertaining to the cecum, which is the first part of the large intestine

17

celiac

pertaining to the abdomen

18

cheilosis

scales and fissures on the lips

19

cholecystectomy

excision or removal of the gallbladder

20

choledocholithiasis

abnormal condition of stones in the common bile duct

21

choledochojejunostomy

surgical anastomosis (create a new opening) between the common bile duct and the jejunum

22

choledochotomy

incision of the common bile duct

23

cholelithiasis

abnormal condition of forming gallstones

24

colon

large intestine (bowel)

25

colonic

pertaining to the colon

26

colonoscopy

visual endoscopic examination of the colon

27

colostomy

new opening of the colon through the abdominal wall to the outside of the body

28

common bile duct

tube carrying bile from the gallbladder and liver into the first part of the small intestine

29

defecation

eliminating of wastes and undigested foods through the rectum

30

deglutition

swallowing

31

dentibuccal

pertaining to the cheek and teeth

32

dentin

the chief substance of teeth; surrounding the pulp and covered by enamel of the crown

33

digestion

the process of breaking down complex foods into simpler substances that can be absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine

34

duodenal

pertaining to the duodenum

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duodenum

the first part of the small intestine

36

elimination

discharge from the body of indigestible materials or wastes

37

emulsification

breakdown of large fat globules into smaller, digestible particles

38

enamel

white, compact and hard substance covering the substance (dentin) of the crown of the tooth

39

endodontist

a dentist specializing in the inner parts of the tooth

40

enterocolitis

inflammation of the small intestine and colon

41

enteroenterostomy

new opening between two previously unconnected parts of the small intestine; anastomosis

42

enzyme

protein that speeds up the rate of the biochemical reaction; the suffix -ase means enzyme

43

esophageal

pertaining to the esophagus

44

fatty acids

substances that are produced when fats are digested; they combine with glycerol to form fat

45

facial

pertaining to the face

46

feces

solid wastes; stools

47

gallbladder

small sac lying below the liver, in which bile is stored

48

gastrointestinal tract

the tubular system relating to the stomach and intestine beginning with the mouth and ending with the anus

49

gastrojejunostomy

new surgical opening between the stomach and the jejunum; an anastomosis; the procedure is part of a gastric bypass surgery

50

gastrostomy

new opening of the stomach through the abdominal wall to the outside of the body

51

gingivitis

inflammation of the gums

52

gluconeogenesis

process of producing new sugar from fats and proteins; occurs mainly in the liver

53

glucose

simple sugar necessary as a source of energy for body cells

54

glycogen

storage form of glucose (sugar); it produces glucose when it is broken down (glycogenolysis) in liver cells

55

glycogenolysis

breakdown of glycogen to release sugar

56

hepatoma

tumor (malignant) of liver cells; hepatocellular carcinoma

57

hepatomegaly

enlargement of the liver

58

hydrochloric acid

strong acid, present in a dilute form in the stomach; aids digestion

59

hyperbilirubinemia

high levels of bilirubin (yellow/orange pigment) in the bloodstream; jaundice

60

hyperglycemia

high levels of sugar in the bloodstream; diabetes mellitus

61

hypoglossal

pertaining to under the tongue

62

ileitis

inflammation of the ileum (third part of the small intestine)

63

ileocecal sphincter

ring of muscles that are between the ileum and the cecum (first part of the large intestine)

64

ileostomy

surgical construction of an artificial opening from the ileum to the outside of the body through the abdominal wall

65

ileum

third (and final) portion of the small intestine

66

incisor

one of the four front teeth on either jaw

67

insulin

hormone secreted by specialized cells in the pancreas; insulin facilitates transport of sugar from the blood into body cells

68

jejunum

second part of the small intestine

69

labial

pertaining to the lip

70

laparoscopy

visual (endoscopic) examination of the abdomen and abdominal organs through small abdominal incisions

71

lipase

enzyme (-ase) that digests fats; produced by cells in the pancreas and secreted into the duodenum

72

lithogenesis

formation of stone (calculi)

73

liver

large, reddish-brown organ in the right upper quadrant (RUQ) of the abdomen; it secretes bile, forms blood proteins and metabolizes fats, proteins and sugars

74

lower esophageal sphincter

ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach

75

mastication

process of chewing

76

mesentery

membrane that holds the intestine together; a fold of the peritoneum attaching the small intestine to the dorsal (back) body wall

77

molar teeth

six, seventh and eighth teeth from the middle or either side of the dental arch, the most posterior molar is known as the wisdom tooth

78

oral

pertaining to the mouth

79

orthodontist

dentist specializing in straightening teeth

80

palate

roof of the mouth; hard palate is the front bony portion and the soft palate is the posterior fleshy part near the throat

81

palatopharhyngoplasty

a procedure used to treat cases of snoring or sleep apnea caused by obstructions in the throat or nose

82

palatoplasty

surgical repair of the palate

83

pancreas

gland under and behind the stomach; produces enzymes to digest foods and the hormone insulin to transport sugar to cells

84

pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas

85

papillae

small elevations on the surface of the tongue containing taste buds

86

parenteral

pertaining to by some route other than through the gastrointestinal tract, as by intravenous injection

87

parotid gland

salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear

88

perianal

pertaining to surrounding the anus

89

periodontist

dentist specializing in treating the gums

90

perionitis

inflammation of the peritoneum

91

peristalsis

rythm-like contractions of the tubes of the gastrointestinal tract and other tubular structures

92

pharyngeal

pertaining to the pharynx or throat

93

pharynx

throat; the common passageway for food from the mouth

94

portal vein

large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines

95

postprandial

after meals

96

premolar teeth

either of the two teeth on each side of each jaw, just behind the canine teeth and in front of the molars

97

proctologist

either of the two teeth on each side of each jaw, just behind the canine teeth and in front of the molars

98

proctologist

specialist in the study of the anus and the rectum

99

protease

enzyme that digest protein

100

pulp

soft tissue with a tooth containing nerves and blood vessels

101

pyloric sphincter

ring of muscles that surround the opening of the stomach to the duodenum

102

pyloroplasty

surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter

103

pylorus

distal region of the stomach near the duodenum

104

rectocele

hernia of the wall of the rectum

105

rectum

final section of the colon

106

rugae

folds or creases in the mucous membrane of the stomach or the hard palate of the mouth

107

saliva

enzyme-containing digestive juice secreted by salivary glands

108

salivary glands

three pairs of exocrine glands secreting saliva into the mouth; parotid glands, sublingual glands, and submandibular glands

109

sialadenitis

inflammation of a salivary gland

110

sialolith

salivary gland stone; lodged in a saliva gland or duct

111

sigmoid colon

distal, lower end of the colon

112

sigmoidoscopy

visual examination of the sigmoid colon

113

sphincter

circular ring of muscle that surrounds an opening or orifice

114

steatorrhea

discharge of fat in the feces due to improper digestion and malabsorption of fat

115

stomatisis

inflammation of the mouth

116

sublingual

pertaining to under the tongue

117

submandibular

pertaining to under the lower jaw (mandible)

118

triglycerides

chief form of fat (lipids) in body cells; composed of three molecules of fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol

119

uvula

small, fleshy mass hanging from the soft palate at the back of the mouth

120

uvulectomy

removal (excision) of the uvula

121

villi

fingerlike, microscopic projections on the inner surface of the small intestine; sites of absorption of foods and fluids

122

achalasia

failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) to relax; dilation of the esophagus and loss of peristalsis occurs

123

anal fistula

abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus

124

anorexia

lack of appetite

125

aphthous stomatitis

inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers; canker sores

126

ascites

abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen

127

borborygmus

rumbling or gurgling noise produced by hyperactive movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal tract

128

cholelithiasis

abnormal condition of gallstones

129

cirrhosis

chronic, degenerative disease of the liver

130

colonic polyps

benign growths protrude from the mucous membrane lining the colon

131

colorectal cancer

adenocarcinoma of the colon or the rectum or both

132

constipation

difficulty in passing (eliminating) feces (stool)

133

Crohn disease

inflammatory bowel disease marked by diarrhea, pain, fever, weakness, and weight loss

134

dental caries

tooth decay

135

diarrhea

frequent passage of loose watery stools

136

diverticula

small, pouch-like herniations through the muscular wall of a tubular organ such as the colon

137

diverticulitis

inflammation of diverticula; abdonminal pain and rectal bleeding are symptoms

138

diverticulosis

abnormal condition of diverticula without inflammation

139

dysentery

painful, inflamed intestines commonly caused by bacterial infection

140

dysphagia

difficulty swallowing

141

eructation

gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth

142

esophageal varices

swollen, twisted veins at the lower end of the esophagus

143

etiology

study of the cause of disease

144

flatus

gas expelled through the anus

145

gastric cancer

malignant tumor of the stomach; stomach cancer

146

gastroesophageal reflux disease

backflow of solids and liquid against its normal direction of movement

147

hematochezia

passage of bright red blood from the rectum

148

hemorroids

swollen, twisted varicose veins in the rectal region

149

herpetic stomatitis

inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpes virus; painful, fluid-filled blisters are produced by the infection and known as cold sores or fever blisters

150

hiatal hernia

protusion of the upper portion of the stomach upward through the diaphragm

151

icterus

jaundice; yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood

152

idiopathic

pertaining to unknown cause of disease

153

ileus

failure of peristalsis with obstruction of the intestines

154

inflammatory bowel disease

severe inflammation of the small and large intestine (colon); examples are Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis

155

inguinal hernia

a small loop of the bowel protrudes through a weakened lower abdominal muscle

156

intussusception

one portion of the intestine slips into an adjoining part; telescoping of the intestines

157

irritable bowel syndrome

group of gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, and bloating) associated with stress and tension

158

jaundice

a symptom of illness marked by yellow-orange discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes resulting from excess bilirubin in the blood

159

melena

black, tarry stools; feces containing blood

160

nausea

unpleasant sensation in the stomach with a tendency to vomit

161

oral leukoplakia

white plaques or patches on the mucous membranes of the mouth

162

pancreatic cancer

malignant tumor of the pancreas

163

pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas

164

peptic ulcer

open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum

165

periodontal disease

inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone

166

ulcerative colitis

inflammation of the colon and rectum with the presence of ulcers; an inflammatory bowel disease

167

viral hepatitis

inflammation of the liver caused by a virus

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