Chapter 13. Blood System - Medical Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13. Blood System - Medical Terms Deck (120):
1

albumin

protein found in blood

2

anisocytosis

inequality in the size of red blood cells

3

antibody

protein made by white blood cells in response to foreign substances (antigens) in the blood

4

anticoagulant

substance that stimulates the production of an antibody

5

antigen

foreign agent that stimulates the production of an antibody

6

basophil

white blood cell (leukocyte) containing dark granules that stain with a basic dye

7

bilirubin

orange-yellow pigment found in bile; it is released from the brakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die

8

coagulation

process of blood clotting

9

coagulopathy

disease of blood clotting

10

colony-stimulating factor

protein that stimulates the growth and proliferation of white blood cells (granulocytes)

11

cytology

study of cells

12

differentiation

specialization of cells from immature to mature forms

13

electrophoresis

technique used to separate serum proteins by electrical charge

14

eosinophil

white blood cell whose granules stain intensely with an acidic eosin (reddish) dye; elevated in allergic reations

15

eosinophilia

increase in numbers of eosinophils in the bloodstream

16

eyrthroblast

immature, developing red blood cells

17

erythropoiesis

formation of red blood cells

18

erythropoietin

substance (hormone) produced by the kidney to stimulate bone marrow to produce erthrocytes

19

fibrin

protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot

20

fibrinogen

plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process

21

globulin

major blood protein; immunoglobulin

22

granulocyte

white blood cell with numerous dark-staining granules; neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil

23

granulocytopenia

deficiency of granulocytes

24

hematopoiesis

formation of blood cells

25

hemoglobin

blood protein containing iron; carries oxygen in red blood cells

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hemoglobinopathy

disease or defect of hemoglobin production; sickle cell anemia is an example

27

hemolysis

destruction or breakdown of blood; specifically red blood cells

28

hemostasis

stoppage of bleeding or circulation of blood

29

heparin

anticoagulant found in blood and tissues

30

hypochromic

pertaining to deficiency in color; decrease in hemoglobin in red blood cells

31

immune reaction

response of the immune system to foreign invasion

32

immunoglobulin

antibody-containing protein in the blood; IgG, IgA, IgM

33

leukaphersis

mechanical separation of white blood cells from the rest of the blood

34

leukocyte

white blood cell

35

leukopenia

deficiency of white blood cells

36

lymphocyte

white blood cell with a single nucleus (mononuclear); capable of producing antibodies

37

macrocytosis

presence of large red blood cells in the blood

38

macrophage

large phagocytic cell migrating from the blood into the tissues

39

megakaryocyte

large, giant cell with a big nucleus; platelet precursor found in the bone marrow

40

microcytosis

increased numbers of smaller than normal red blood cells

41

monoblast

immature monocyte

42

mononuclear

pertaining to a white blood cell with a single, round nucleus; monocyte or lymphocyte

43

morphology

study of the shape and form of cells, particularly red blood cells

44

myeloblast

immature granulocytic white blood cell; a cell normally only found in the bone marrow

45

myelodysplasia

preleukemic condition

46

myeloid

derived from bone marrow

47

myelopoiesis

formation and development of bone marrow or cells that originate from it

48

neutropenia

deficiency of neutrophils

49

neutrophil

white blood cell with dark granules that stain with a neutral dye; phagocyte formed in the bone marrow and the body's first line of defense against disease

50

neutrophilia

increased numbers of neutrophils

51

pancytopenia

deficiency of all (blood) cells

52

phagocyte

cell that engulfs another cell or foreign organizm and destroys it

53

plasma

liquid portion of blood containing proteins, water, salts, nutrients, hormones, and vitamins

54

plasmapheresis

removal of plasma from withdrawn blood by centrifuge

55

platelet

clotting cell or thrombocyte

56

plateletpheresis

separation of platelets from the rest of the blood

57

poikilocytosis

variation in the shape of red blood cells

58

polymorphonuclear

pertaining to a multi-lobed nucleus (in granulocytic white blood cells)

59

prothrombin

plasma protein converted to thrombin in the clotting process

60

reticulocyte

immature erthrocyte with a network of strands (reticulum)

61

Rh factor

antigen (protein) on red blood cells of Rh positive individuals

62

serum

plasma minus clotting proteins (prothrombin and fibrinogen) and clotting cells

63

sideropenia

deficiency of iron in the blood

64

spherocytosis

increase in numbers of sphere-shaped red blood cells, as in a type of anemia (hemolytic anemia)

65

stem cell

unspecialized cell that gives rise to all forms of specialized cells in the body; hematopioetic stem cells are found in the bone marrow and lead to the development of all types of blood cells

66

thrombin

enzyme necessary for blood clotting (converts fibrinogen to fibrin in the clotting process)

67

thrombocyte

platelet; clotting cell

68

thrombocytopenia

deficiency of clotting cells

69

thrombolytic therapy

treatment with drugs to break down clots that may abnormally form in blood vessels

70

thrombosis

condition of clot formation

71

acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)

malignant, immature lymphocytes multiply in the blood, bone marrow, and lymphatic system

72

acute leukemia (AML)

malignant, immature granulocytes called myleoblasts multiply in the bone marrow and bloodstream

73

anemia

deficiency in erythrocytes or hemoglobin

74

antiglobulin test

test for the presence of antibodies that coat and damage erythrocytes; Coombs test

75

apheresis

withdrawal and separation of blood elements

76

aplastic anemia

failure of blood cell production due to aplasia (absence of formation) of bone marrow cells

77

autologous transfusion

removal and then reinfusion of a patient's own blood or blood components

78

bleeding time

time required for blood to stop flowing from a tiny puncture wound

79

blood transfusion

blood cells or whole blood from a closely matched donor are infused into a patient

80

bone marrow biopsy

needle aspiration of a small amount of bone marrow followed by examination under a microscope

81

chronic lymphocytic leukemia

malignant, but relatively mature lymphocytes, multiply in bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen

82

coagulation time

time required for venous blood to clot in a test tube

83

chronic myelogenous leukemia

malignant, but relatively mature granulocytic leukocytes multiply in the bloodstream

84

complete blood count

determination of the number of red and white blood cells, platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red cells indices (MCH, MCV, MCHC) in a sample of blood

85

dyscrasia

blood disease

86

ecchymoses

large blue or purplish on the skin (bruises)

87

erythrocyte sedimentation rate

measurement of the speed at which erythrocytes settle or fall to the bottom of a test tube

88

granulocytosis

increased numbers of granulocytes in the blood

89

hematocrit

percentage of red blood cells in a given volume of blood

90

hematopoietic stem cell transplant

peripheral (found in the blood) stem cells from a compatible donor are administered into the vein of a recipient

91

hemochromatosis

excessive deposits of iron throughout the body

92

hemoglobin test

total amount of hemoglobin in a sample of the blood

93

hemolytic anemia

reducgtion in eyrthrocytes due to excessive destruction of red blood cells

94

hemophilia

hereditary disease of blood clotting failure with abnormal bleeding; affected individuals are lacking a blood clotting factor (factor VIII or factor IX)

95

intrinsic factor

substance normally found in gastric (stomach) juice that helps absorption of vitamin B12 into the bloodstream

96

leukemia

increase in cancerous white blood cells

97

mononucleosis

infectious disease marked by increased numbers of leukocytes and enlarged cervical lymph nodes

98

multiple myeloma

malignant tumor of bone marrow; overproduction of immunoglobulins and destruction of bone tissue

99

palliative

relieving, but not curing illness

100

pernicious anemia

lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin b12 into the body

101

petechiae

small, pinpoint hemorrhages caused by bleeding under the skin

102

platelet count

number of platelets per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood

103

polycythemia vera

increase in numbers of red blood cells (erythremia)

104

prothrombin time

test of the ability of blood to clot

105

purpura

multiple pinpoint hemorrhages and accumulation of blood under the skin caused by deficiency of clotting cells (platelets)

106

red blood cell count

number of erythrocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood

107

red blood cell morphology

microscopic examination of a stained blood smear to determine the shape of individual red blood cells

108

relapse

return of symptoms of a disease

109

remission

disappearance of symptoms of disease

110

sickle cell anemia

hereditary condition marked by abnormal sickle shape of erythrocytes and my hemolysis

111

thalassemia

inherited defect in the ability to produce hemoglobin, usually seen in persons of Mediterranean background

112

white blood cell count

number of leukocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood

113

white blood cell differential

percentaqe of the total white blood cell count made up by different types of leukocytes

114

red blood cell morphology

microscopic examination of a stained blood smear to determine the shape of individual red blood cells

115

relapse

return of symptoms of a disease

116

remission

disappearance of symptoms of disease

117

sickle cell anemia

hereditary condition marked by abnormal sickle shape of erythrocytes and my hemolysis

118

thalassemia

inherited defect in the ability to produce hemoglobin, usually seen in persons of Mediterranean background

119

white blood cell count

number of leukocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood

120

white blood cell differential

percentaqe of the total white blood cell count made up by different types of leukocytes

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