Chapter 11. Cardiovascular System - Medical Terms Flashcards Preview

Language of Medicine > Chapter 11. Cardiovascular System - Medical Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 11. Cardiovascular System - Medical Terms Deck (148):
1

angiogram

x-ray record of a blood vessel

2

angioplasty

surgical repair of a blood vessel

3

anoxia

lack of oxygen in body tissues

4

aorta

largest artery in the body

5

aortic stenosis

narrowing of the aorta

6

arrhythmia

without rhythm; an irregular beat of the heart

7

arterial anastomosis

surgical connection between two arteries

8

arteriography

x-ray recording of arteries; contrast is injected

9

arteriole

small artery

10

arteriosclerosis

hardening of an artery with collection of fatty plaque

11

artery

largest type of blood vessel

12

atheroma

mass of fatty plaque that collects in an artery

13

atherosclerosis

form of arteriosclerosis in which fatty plaque deposits in the interior lining of an artery

14

atrial

pertaining to an atrium (upper chamber of the heart)

15

atrioventricular bundle

specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting impulses between them; bundle of His

16

atrioventricular node

specialized tissue in the wall between the atria; electrical impulses pass from the sino-atrial node (pacemaker) through the atrioventricular node and atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) toward the ventricles

17

atrium, atria

upper chamber of the heart

18

brachial artery

artery that carries blood to the arm

19

bradycardia

slow heartbeat

20

bundle of His

atrioventricular bundle

21

capillary

smallest blood vessel

22

carbon dioxide

Gas released by body cells and carried by veins to the heart, and then to the lungs for exhalation; CO2.

23

cardiogenic shock

shock that results from failure of the heart in its pumping action

24

cardiomegaly

enlargement of the heart

25

cardimyopathy

disease of heart muscle

26

coronary arteries

branches of the aorta bringing oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle

27

cyanosis

abnormal condition of blueness of the skin; caused by decreased oxygen and increased carbon dioxide in the blood

28

deoxygenated blood

blood that is oxygen poor

29

diastole

relaxation phase of the heartbeat

30

electrocardiogram

record of the electricity flowing through the heart

31

endocardium

inner lining of the heart

32

endothelium

innermost lining of blood vessels

33

hypercholesterolemia

high levels of cholesterol in the blood

34

hypoxia

deficiency of oxygen in body tissues

35

interventricular septum

wall between the ventricles of the heart

36

mitral valve

valve between the left atrium and left ventricle; bicuspid valve

37

mitral valvulitis

inflammation of the mitral valve

38

myocardium

muscular layer of the heart

39

myxoma

rare neoplasm of connective tissue found in the heart muscle

40

normal sinus rhythm

heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node

41

oxygen

a gas that enters the body through the lungs and travels to the heart to be distributed by arterial blood to all parts of the body

42

pacemaker

specialized nervous tissue in the wall of the right atrium; it begins the heartbeat; sinoatrial node

43

pericardiocentesis

surgical puncture to remove fluid within the pericardial space surrounding the heart

44

pericardium

double-layered membrane surrounding the heart

45

phlebotomy

incision into a vein

46

pulmonary artery

blood vessel carrying oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs

47

pulmonary circulation

flow of blood from the hear to the lungs and them back to the heart

48

pulmonary valve

a valve located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery

49

pulmonary vein

one of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart

50

pulse

beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries

51

septum, septa

wall or partition; the interatrial septum lies between the atria of the heart and the interventricular septum is between the ventricles of the heart

52

sinoatrial node

sensitive nervous tissue in the wall of the right atrium; pacemaker of the heart

53

sphygmomanometer

instrument to measure blood pressure

54

stethoscope

instrument for listening to sounds in the chest

55

systemic circulation

flow of blood from body tissues to the heart and from the heart back to the tissues

56

systole

contraction phase of the heartbeat

57

tachycardia

rapid heartbeat

58

thrombolysis

destruction of a clot

59

thrombophlebitis

inflammation of a vein and formation of a clot within the vein

60

tricuspid valve

a valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle

61

valve

Structure in a vein or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in the proper direction.

62

valvotomy

incision of a valve

63

valvuloplasty

surgical repair of a valve

64

vascular

pertaining to a blood vessel

65

vasoconstriction

narrowing of a blood vessel

66

vasodilation

widening of a blood vessel; vasodilatation

67

vein

thin-walled blood vessel that carries oxygen-poor (deoxygenated) blood from body tissues back to the heart

68

vena cava, venae cavae

largest vein in the body; the venae cavae (inferior and superior) return blood to the heart from the body tissues

69

venipuncture

incision of a vein to remove blood

70

venous

pertaining to a vein

71

ventricle

one of two lower chambers of the heart

72

venule

small vein

73

ACE inhibitor

Drug that causes dilation of blood vessels and lowers blood pressure, prevents heart attacks, strokes, and congestive heart failure. ACE stands for angiotensin-converting enzyme, which normally constricts blood vessels.

74

acute coronary syndromes

consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries; unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack)

75

aneurysm

local widening or ballooning out of a small area of an artery

76

angina

chest pain associated with myocardial ischemia

77

angiography

x-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material

78

atrioventricular block

failure of conduction of impulses from the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle and ventricles of the heart

79

atrial fibrillation

electrical impulses move randomly throughout the atria, causing the atria to quiver instead of contracting with a normal rhythm

80

auscultation

use of a stethoscope to listen for sounds emanating from the heart or other organs

81

beta-blocker

drug used to treat high blood pressure and control heart rate

82

bruit

an abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard on ascultation of an artery or an organ

83

calcium channel blocker

drug used to treat chest pain (angina) and high blood pressure (hypertension)

84

cardiac arrest

sudden, unexpected stoppage of the heart; sudden cardiac death

85

cardiac biomarkers

Chemicals that are measured in the blood as evidence of a heart attack. Examples are creatine kinase (CK), troponin-I (cTnI), and troponin T (cTnT)

86

cardiac catheterization

Thin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery and after contrast material is introduced, blood pressure is measured, and x-rays taken to image patterns of blood flow.

87

cardiac MRI

images of the heart are produced with magnetic waves

88

cardiac tamponade

pressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space

89

cardioversion

treatment for serious arrhythmias using brief discharges of electricity to shock the heart so a normal rhythm can begin; defibrillation

90

catheter ablation

brief delivery of radiofrequency or cryoenergy to destroy areas of heart tissue that may be causing arrhythmias

91

coarctation of the aorta

congenital anomaly in which a portion of the aorta near the heart is narrowed or stenosed

92

computerized tomography angiography

X-ray images are combined with computerized tomography to produce a three-dimensional picture of the heart and blood vessels.

93

congenital heart disease

structural heart defects that appear at birth

94

congestive heart failure

heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood

95

coronary artery disease

arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle become clogged and blocked with deposits of fatty material and cholesterol (plaque)

96

coronary artery bypass grafting

arteries or veins are grafted onto coronary arteries to bypass blocked arteries and bring needed blood supply to the myocardium

97

deep-vein thrombosis

blood clots form in a large vein, usually in the leg

98

defibrillation

brief discharges of electricity are applied across the chest to stop dysrhythmias

99

digoxin

drug that increases the strength and regularity of the heartbeat

100

digital subtraction angiography

video equipment, computer, and x-ray machine produce images of blood vessels before and after injecting contrast material

101

Doppler ultrasound

method of focusing sound waves on blood vessels to measure blood flow

102

echocardiography

high-energy sound waves are transmitted into the chest and images recorded of valves, chambers, surfaces and movement of the heart

103

electrocardiography

process of recording the electricity flowing through the heart

104

electron beam computed tomography

electron beams and CT identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose early coronary artery disease

105

embolus, emboli

a clot or other substance that travels to a distant location and suddenly blocks a blood vessel

106

endarterectomy

surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery

107

endocarditis

inflammation of the endocardium (inner lining of the heart)

108

estracorporeal circulation

use of a heart-lung machine to divert blood from the heart and lungs during open heart surgery

109

fibrillation

random, rapid, inefficient, irregular contractions of the atria or ventricles

110

flutter

rapid, but regular contractions of the heart, usually of the atria

111

heart transplantation

donor heart is transferred to a recipient

112

hemorrhoids

swollen, twisted veins in the rectal and anal region

113

Holter monitoring

compact version of an electrocardiograph is worn during a 24-hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias

114

hypertension

high blood pressure

115

implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

small electric device implanted inside the chest (near the collarbone) to sense arrhythmias and terminate them to restore normal sinus rhythm

116

infarction

area of dead tissue

117

ischemia

holding back blood to a region of the body; myocardial ischemia is deprivation of blood to the heart muscle

118

left ventricular assist device

Booster pump implanted in the abdomen with a tube inserted into the left ventricle. An LVAD is a “bridge to transplant” or destination therapy when heart transplantation is impossible.

119

lipid tests

measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides (fats) in a sample of blood

120

lipoprotein electrophoresis

Lipoproteins (combinations of fat and protein) are physically separated in a blood sample. Examples of lipoproteins are HDL (high density lipoprotein) and LDL (low density lipoprotein).

121

mitral stenosis

narrowing of the mitral valve

122

mitral valve prolapse

abnormal closure of the mitral valve so that blood refluxes backward into the left atrium during ventricular contraction

123

murmur

extra sound heard between normal beats during auscultation of the heart

124

myocardial infarction

area of dead (necrotic) tissue in the heart muscle; heart attack

125

nitroglycerin

drug used in the treatment of angina (pectoris); it dilates coronary arteries so that more blood flows to heart muscle

126

occlusion

blockage or closure of a vessel or tube

127

palpitations

uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as skipped beats

128

patent ductus arteriosus

the ductus arteriosus, a small duct that is open during fetal circulation, fails to close at birth

129

percutanous coronary intervention

A catheter with a balloon and stent is inserted into a coronary artery to remove collections of plaque. Drug-eluting stents release chemicals to keep debris and plaque from recollecting.

130

pericardial friction rub

scraping or grating sound heard on auscultation of the heart; it is usually symptomatic of pericarditis

131

percarditis

inflammation of the pericardium (double-layered outermost membrane of the heart)

132

peripheral arterial disease

blockage of arteries carrying blood to the legs, arms, kidneys, and other organs

133

petechiae

small pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin

134

positron emission tomography

images show blood flow and myocardial function following uptake of radioactive substances

135

Raynaud disease

recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis in fingers and toes caused by blood vessel spasms

136

rheumatic heart disease

heart disease caused by rheumatic fever

137

septal defects

small holes, present at birth, in the walls between the heart chambers

138

statins

drugs given to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream

139

stress test

exercise tolerance test (ETT) is used to determine the heart's response to physical exertion

140

telemetry

continuous monitoring of a patient's heart rhythm in a hospital

141

tetralogy of Fallot

four separate defects of the heart occuring at birth

142

technetium 99m sestamibi scan

update of a radioactive chemical (technetium 99m sestamibi) in mycardium reveals evidence of a heart attach (myocardial infarction)

143

thallium 201 scan

concentration of a radioactive substance (thallium 201) is measure in the mycardium to show evidence of an infarction ("cold spots")

144

thrill

fine vibration felt on palpation (touching) the body over a blood vessel that is blocked

145

thrombolytic therapy

injection of drugs (streptokinase and tPA) to dissolve clots in the bloodstream)

146

thrombotic occlusion

blockage of a blood vessel caused by thrombosis or clot formation

147

varicose veins

swollen, twisted veins, often occurring in the legs

148

vegetations

Collections of clotted material that accumulate on endocardium and valves of the heart in conditions such as endocarditis and rheumatic heart disease.

Decks in Language of Medicine Class (49):