Chapter 10 Part. 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Part. 2 Deck (26):
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A polymer made up of many nucleotides covalently bonded together.

Polynucleotide

1

An infectious form of protein that may multiply by converting related proteins into more ____. They cause several related diseases in different animals, including scrapie in sheep and mad cow disease.

Prion

2

A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA located at the start of a gene that is the binding site for RNA polymerase and the place where transcription begins.

Promoter

3

Phage DNA that has inserted by genetic recombination into the DNA of a prokaryotic chromosome.

Prophage

4

A bacterial plasmid that carries genes for enzymes that destroy particular antibiotics, thus making the bacterium resistant to the antibiotics.

R-plasmid

5

The way in which a cell's mRNA-translating machinery groups the mRNA nucleotides into codons.

Reading Frame

6

An RNA virus that reproduces by means of a DNA molecule. It reverse-transcribes its RNA into DNA, inserts the DNA into a cellular chromosome, and then transcribes more copies of the RNA from the viral DNA. HIV and a number of cancer-causing viruses are retroviruses.

Retrovirus

7

An enzyme used by retroviruses that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA on an RNA template.

Reverse Transcriptase

8

The type of ribonucleic acid that, together with proteins, makes up ribosomes; the most abundant type of RNA in most cells.

Ribosomal RNA ( rRNA )

9

An enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription, using a DNA strand as a template

RNA Polymerase

10

The removal of introns and joining of exons in eukaryotic RNA, forming an mRNA molecule with a continuous coding sequence; occurs before mRNA leaves the nucleus.

RNA Splicing

11

Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one newly made strand.

Semiconservative Model

12

On mRNA, the specific three-nucleotide sequence (AUG) to which an initiator tRNA molecule binds, starting translation of genetic information.

Start Codon

13

In mRNA, one of three triplets (UAG, UAA, UGA) that signal gene translation to stop.

Stop Codon

14

The alternating chain of sugar and phosphate to which the DNA and RNA nitrogenous bases are attached.

Sugar-Phosphate Backbone

15

A special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene. It signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule and then to depart from the gene.

Terminator

16

A single-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA.

Thymine

17

The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template.

Transcription

18

The transfer of bacterial genes from one bacterial cell to another by a phage.

Transduction

19

A type of ribonucleic acid that functions as an interpreter in translation. Each tRNA molecule has a specific anticodon, picks up a specific amino acid, and conveys the amino acid to the appropriate codon on mRNA.

Transfer RNA

20

The incorporation of new genes into a cell from DNA that the cell takes up from the surrounding environment.

Transformation

21

The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids.

Translation

22

A set of three-nucleotide-long "words" that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains. See genetic code.

Triplet code

23

A single-ring nitrogenous base found in RNA.

Uracil

24

A plant pathogen composed of molecules of naked, circular RNA several hundred nucleotides long.

Viroid

25

A microscopic particle capable of infecting cells of living organisms and inserting its genetic material. Viruses are generally not considered to be alive because they do not display all of the characteristics associated with life.

Virus