Flashcards in Chapter 8 Part. 1 Deck (29):
The fourth stage of mitosis, beginning when sister chromatids separate from each other and ending when a complete set of daughter chromosomes arrives at each of the two poles of the cell.
The requirement that to divide, a cell must be attached to a solid surface.
The creation of offspring by a single parent, without the participation of sperm and egg.
A chromosome not directly involved in determining the sex of an organism; in mammals, for example, any chromosome other than X or Y.
An abnormal mass of cells that remains at its original site in the body
A means of asexual reproduction in which a parent organism, often a single cell, divides into two individuals of about equal size.
Cancer that originates in the coverings of the body, such as skin or the lining of the intestinal tract.
An ordered sequence of events (including interphase and the mitotic phase) that extends from the time a eukaryotic cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own division into two cells.
A cyclically operating set of proteins that triggers and
coordinates events in the eukaryotic cell cycle.
Cell cycle control system
The reproduction of a cell.
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.
The region of a duplicated chromosome where two sister chromatids are joined and where spindle microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis. The centromere divides at the onset of anaphase during mitosis and anaphase II during meiosis.
Material in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that gives rise to microtubules; important in mitosis and meiosis; also called microtubule-organizing center.
The microscopically visible site where crossing over has occurred between chromatids of homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.
The complex of DNA and proteins that constitutes eukaryotic chromosomes; often used to refer to the diffuse, very extended form taken by chromosomes when a cell is not dividing.
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and most visible during mitosis and meiosis; also, the main gene-carrying structure of a prokaryotic cell. Chromosomes consist of chromatin, a combination of DNA and protein.
(1) Cytokinesis in animal cells and in some protists, characterized by pinching in of the plasma membrane. (2) In animal development, the succession of rapid cell divisions without cell growth that converts the animal zygote into a ball of cells.
The first sign of cytokinesis during cell division in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
The exchange of segments between chromatids of homologous chromosomes during synapsis in prophase I of meiosis; also, the exchange of segments between DNA molecules in prokaryotes.
The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells. Cytokinesis usually occurs during telophase of mitosis. Mitosis and cytokinesis make up the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle.
The loss of one or more nucleotides from a gene by mutation; the loss of a fragment of a chromosome.
A human genetic disorder resulting from the presence of an extra chromosome 21; characterized by heart and respiratory defects and varying degrees of mental retardation.
A sex cell; a haploid egg or sperm. The union of two gametes of opposite sex (fertilization) produces a zygote.
A complete (haploid) set of an organism's genes; an organism's genetic material.
A protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide.
In the life cycle of an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing a single set of chromosomes; an n cell.
The entire sequence of stages in the life of an organism, from the adults of one generation to the adults of the next.
Cancer of the tissues that form white blood cells.