Chapter 9 Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Part 2 Deck (24):
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Mating between close relatives.

Inbreeding

1

A type of inheritance in which the phenotype of a heterozygote (Aa) is intermediate between the phenotypes of the two types of homozygotes (AAand aa).

Incomplete Dominance

2

A general rule in inheritance that when gametes form during meiosis, each pair of alleles for a particular characteristic segregate independently of other pairs; also known as Mendel's second law of inheritance.

Law of Independent Assortment

3

A general rule in inheritance that individuals have two alleles for each gene and that when gametes form by meiosis, the two alleles separate, each resulting gamete ending up with only one allele of each gene; also known as Mendel's first law of inheritance.

Law of Segregation

4

Genes located near each other on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together.

Linked Genes

5

An experimental mating of individuals differing at one genetic locus.

Mono hybrid Cross

6

The parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance. (P stands for parental.)

P-Generation

7

A family tree representing the occurrence of heritable traits in parents and offspring across a number of generations.

Pedigree

8

The expressed traits of an organism.

Phenotype

9

The control of more than one phenotypic characteristic by a single gene.

Pleiotropy

10

The additive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic characteristic.

Polygenic Inheritance

11

A diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the results of random fertilization.

Punnett Square

12

An allele that has no noticeable effect on the phenotype of a gene when the individual is heterozygous for that gene.

Recessive Gene

13

With respect to two given genes, the number of recombinant progeny from a mating divided by the total number of progeny. Recombinant progeny carry combinations of alleles different from those in either of the parents as a result of independent assortment of chromosomes or crossing over.

Recombination Frequency

14

A category of common, sex-linked human disorders involving several genes on the X chromosome; characterized by a malfunction of light-sensitive cells in the eyes; affects mostly males but also homozygous females.

Red-Green Colorblindness

15

A rule stating that the probability that an event can occur in two or more alternative ways is the sum of the separate probabilities of the different ways.

Rule of Addition

16

A rule stating that the probability of a compound event is the product of the separate probabilities of the independent events.

Rule of Multiplication

17

The fusion of sperm and egg produced by the same individual organism.

Self-Fertilize

18

A chromosome that determines whether an individual is male or female.

Sex Chromosome

19

A gene located on a sex chromosome. In humans, the vast majority of sex-linked genes are located on the Y chromosome

Sex-Linked Gene

20

The mating between an individual of unknown genotype for a particular characteristic and an individual that is homozygous recessive for that same characteristic. The testcross can be used to determine the unknown genotype (homozygous dominant versus heterozygous).

Testcross

21

A variant of a character found within a population, such as purple flowers in pea plants.

Trait

22

Referring to organisms for which sexual reproduction produces offspring with inherited traits identical
to those of the parents; the organisms are homozygous for the characteristics under consideration.

True-Breeding

23

A technique for examining a fetus in the uterus. High-frequency sound waves echoing off the fetus are used to produce an image of the fetus.

Ultrasound Imaging