Chapter 4 Vocab Words - Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Vocab Words - Part 2 Deck (24):
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A digestive organelle in eukaryotic cells, contains hydrolytic enzymes that digest the cell's food and wastes.

Lysosome

1

The thinnest of the 3 main kinds of protein fibers making up the cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell; a solid, helical rod composed of the globular protein actin.

Microfilaments

2

A photograph taken through a microscope.

Micrograph

3

The thickest of the 3 main kinds of fibers making up the cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell; a straight, hollow tube made of globular proteins called tubulins. Microtubules form the basis of the structure and movement of cilia and flagella.

Microtubule

4

The fluid contained within the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.

Mitochondrial Matrix

5

An organelle in eukaryotic cells where cellular respiration occurs. Enclosed by 2 concentric membranes, it is where most of the cell's ATP is made.

Mitochondrion

6

A double membrane, perforated with pores, which encloses the nucleus and separates it from the rest of the eukaryotic cell.

Nuclear Envelope

7

A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.

Nucleoid

8

A structure within the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell where ribosomal RNA is made and assembled with proteins imported from the cytoplasm to make ribosomal subunits.

Nucleolus

9

The genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell.

Nucleus

10

A membrane-enclosed structure with a specialized function within a cell.

Organelle

11

An organelle containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.

Peroxisome

12

The membrane that sets a cell off from its surroundings and acts as a selective barrier to the passage of ions and molecules into and out of the cell; consists of a phospholipid bilayer in which are embedded molecules of protein and cholesterol.

Plasma Membrane

13

An open channel in a plant cell wall through which strands of cytoplasm connect from adjacent cells.

Plasmodesma

14

A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.

Prokaryotic Cell

15

A cell structure consisting of RNA and protein organized into 2 subunits and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. The ribosomal subunits are constructed in the nucleolus.

Ribosome

16

A network of interconnected membranous sacs in a eukaryotic cell's cytoplasm. Rough ER membranes are studded with ribosomes that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins.

Rough ER

17

A microscope that uses an electron beam to study the surface architecture of a cell or other specimen.

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

18

The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water; Sugars are made in the stroma by the enzymes of the Calvin cycle.

Stroma

19

One of a number of disk-shaped membranous sacs inside a chloroplast. Thylakoid membranes contain chlorophyll and the enzymes of the light reactions of photosynthesis. A stack of thylakoids is called a granum.

Thylakoid

20

A microscope that uses an electron beam to study the internal structure of thinly sectioned specimens.

Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)

21

A tiny membranous sac in the cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell. The vesicle buds from the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi and eventually fuses with another membranous organelle or the plasma membrane, releasing its contents.

Transport Vesicle

22

A membrane-enclosed sac that is part of the endo-membrane system of a eukaryotic cell, having diverse functions.

Vacuole

23

A sac made of membrane in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell.

Vesicle