Flashcards in Chapter 8. Part 2 Deck (28):
The arrest of cell division that occurs when cells grown in a laboratory dish touch one another.
In an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing two homologous sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent; a 2n cell.
Repetition of part of a chromosome resulting from fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome; can result from an error in meiosis or from mutagenesis.
The union of the nucleus of a sperm cell with the nucleus of an egg cell, producing a zygote.
The production, by crossing over and/or independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis, of offspring with allele combinations different from those in the parents. The term may also be used more specifically to mean the production by crossing over of eukaryotic or prokaryotic chromosomes with gene combinations different from those in the original chromosomes.
The two chromosomes that make up a matched pair in a diploid cell. Homologous chromosomes are of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern and possess genes for the same characteristics at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother.
The period in the eukaryotic cell cycle when the cell is not actually dividing. Interphase constitutes the majority of the time spent in the cell cycle. See also mitotic phase.
A change in a chromosome resulting from reattachment of a chromosome fragment to the original chromosome, but in a reverse direction. Mutagens and errors during meiosis can cause inversions.
A display of micrographs of the metaphase chromosomes of a cell, arranged by size and centromere position.
A type of cancer of the blood-forming tissues, characterized by an excessive production of white blood cells and an abnormally high number of them in the blood; cancer of the bone marrow cells that produce leukocytes.
The particular site where a gene is found on a chromosome. Homologous chromosomes have corresponding gene loci.
The spread of cancer cells beyond their original site.
The division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei. Mitosis and cytokinesis make up the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle.
The part of the cell cycle when the nucleus is divided (via mitosis), its chromosomes are distributed to the daughter nuclei, and the cytoplasm divided (via cytokinesis), producing two daughter cells.
A football-shaped structure formed of microtubules and associated
proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis.
An accident of meiosis or mitosis in which a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to separate at anaphase.
The second stage of mitosis, during which the nuclear envelope fragments and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the sister chromatids.
The first stage of mitosis, during which the chromatin condenses to form structures (sister chromatids) visible with a light microscope and the mitotic spindle begins to form, but the nucleus is still intact.
Cancer of the supportive tissues, such as bone, cartilage, and muscle.
A chromosome that determines whether an individual is male or
The creation of offspring by the fusion of two haploid sex cells (gametes), forming a diploid zygote.
One of the two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell.
Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell or a cell that develops into a sperm or egg.
The fifth and final stage of mitosis, during which daughter nuclei form at the two poles of a cell. Telophase usually occurs together with cytokinesis.
A paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids. Tetrads form during prophase I of meiosis.
(1) During protein synthesis, the movement of a tRNA molecule carrying a growing polypeptide chain from the A site to the P site on a ribosome. (The mRNA travels with it.) (2) A change in a chromosome resulting from a chromosomal fragment attaching to a nonhomologous chromosome; can occur as a result of an error in meiosis or from mutagenesis.
An abnormal mass of cells that forms within otherwise normal tissue.