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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (24):
0

A form of human dwarfism caused by a single dominant allele; the homozygous condition is lethal.

Achondroplasia.

1

Genetically determined classes of human blood that are based on the presence or absence of carbohydrates A and B on the surface of red blood cells. The ABO blood group phenotypes, also called blood types, are A, B, AB, and O.

ABO Blood Groups.

2

An alternative version of a gene.

Allele.

3

A technique for diagnosing genetic defects while a fetus is in the uterus. A sample of amniotic fluid, obtained by a needle inserted into the amnion, is analyzed for telltale chemicals and defective fetal cells.

Amniocentesis.

4

An individual who is heterozygous for a recessively inherited disorder and who therefore does not show symptoms of that disorder but who may pass on the recessive allele to offspring.

Carrier.

5

A heritable feature that varies among individuals within a population, such as flower color in pea plants.

Character.

6

A technique for diagnosing genetic defects while the fetus is in an early development stage within the uterus. A small sample of the fetal portion of the placenta is removed and analyzed.

Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS).

7

A basic principle in biology stating that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns.

Chromosome Theory of Inheritance.

8

Inheritance pattern in which a heterozygote expresses the distinct trait of both alleles.

Codominant.

9

A type of inheritance in which the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable.

Complete Dominance.

10

A mating of two sexually reproducing individuals; often used to describe a genetics experiment involving a controlled mating.

Cross.

11

The fusion of sperm and egg derived from two different individuals.

Cross-Fertilization.

12

A genetic disease that occurs in people with two copies of a certain recessive allele; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated.

Cystic Fibrosis.

13

An experimental mating of individuals differing at two genetic loci.

Dihybrid Cross.

14

The allele that determines the phenotype of a gene when the individual is heterozygous for that gene.

Dominant Allele.

15

A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle tissue.

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

16

The offspring of two parental (P generation) individuals; F1 stands for first filial.

F1 Generation

17

The offspring of the F1 generation; F2 stands for second filial.

F2 Generation

18

The genetic makeup of an organism.

Genotype.

19

A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by excessive bleeding following injury.

Hemophilia.

20

Having two different alleles for a given gene.

Heterozygous.

21

Having two identical alleles for a given gene.

Homozygous.

22

A human genetic disease caused by a dominant allele; characterized by uncontrollable body movements and degeneration of the nervous system; usually fatal 10-20 years after the onset of symptoms.

Huntington's Disease.

23

The offspring of parents of two different species or of two different varieties of one species; the offspring of two parents that differ in one or more inherited traits; an individual that is heterozygous for one or more pairs of genes.

Hybrid.