Flashcards in Chapter 4 Vocab Words Deck (22):
The theory that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells.
A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists; protects the cell and helps maintain its shape.
The chemical activities of cells.
A membrane-enclosed sac occupying most of the interior of a mature plant cell, having diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development.
A structure in an animal cell composed of cylinders of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9 and 0 pattern. An animals usually has a centrosome with a pair of centrioles involved in cell division.
An organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic molecules ( sugars ) from carbon dioxide and water.
The complex of DNA and proteins that constitutes eukaryotic chromosomes; often used to refer to the diffuse, very extended from taken by chromosomes when a cell is not dividing.
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and most visible during mitosis and meiosis; also, the main gene-carrying structure of a prokaryotic cell. Chromosomes consist of chromatin, a combination of DNA and protein.
An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion in which is embedded the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
Everything inside a cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; consists of a semifluid medium and organelles.
A network of protein fibers in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell; includes microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.
An instrument that focuses an electron beam through, or onto the surface of, a specimen. An electron microscope achieves a hundredfold greater resolution than a light microscope.
Electron Microscope (EM)
A network of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by transfer of membranous vesicles.
An extensive membranous network in a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
A process by which the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells probably evolved from symbiotic associations between small prokaryotic cells living inside larger cells.
A type of cell that has a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles. All organisms except bacteria and archaea are composed of eukaryotic cells.
A substance in which the cells of an animal tissue are embedded; consists of protein and polysaccharides.
Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion. The flagella of prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ in both structure and function. Like cilia, eukaryotic flagella have a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules covered by the cells plasma membrane.
A macromolecule consisting of one or more polypeptides linked to short chains of sugars.
An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of membranous sacs that modify, store, and ship products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
A stack of hollow disks formed of thylakoid membrane in a chloroplast. Grana are the sites where light energy is trapped by chlorophyll and converted to chemical energy during the light reactions of photosynthesis.