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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (31)
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Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and to use knowledge to adapt to a new situations

Intelligence

1

A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test, used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score

Factor analysis

2

According to spearman and other underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

General intelligence

3

viewing an abstract, immaterial concept as if it were a concrete thing. (“She has an IQ of 120,” reifying IQ as a thing someone has

Reification

4

helped develop factor analysis, believed there is also a general intelligence, or g factor that underlies the various clusters. (The factor approach)

Charles Spearman

5

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing

Savant Syndrome

6

rejected g-factor. Didn’t rank his subjects on a single scale of general aptitude. Argued that factor analysis revealed seven independent mental abilities. 7 mental abilities

L.L. Thurstone

7

stated that people have specific intellectual potentials, or “intelligences,” each involving a set of problem-solving skills. (Linguistic, Logical-mathematical, Musical, Spatial, Bodily-kinesthetic, Intrapersonal (self), Interpersonal (other people), Naturalist)

Howard Gardner

8

triarchic theory distinguishes three intelligences: analytical (academic problem-solving) intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence.

Robert Sternberg

9

the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions

Emotional Intelligence

10

​the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.

Creativity

11

a method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of
others, using numerical scores.

Intelligence Tests

12

started the modern intelligence-testing movement by developing questions that helped predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system. (determining which students needed to be placed in Special Education classrooms)

Alfred Binet

13

a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 9-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.

Mental age

14

a Stanford University Professor, Terman revised Binet’s original IQ test by establishing new age norms and extending the upper end of the test’s range from teenagers to “superior adults.” Supported the Nature side of the debate.

Lewis Terman

15

The widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet’s original intelligence test.

Stanford-Binet

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defined originally as the ration of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ = ma/ca x 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.

IQ

17

​a test designed to predict a person’s future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.

Aptitude Tests

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a test designed to assess what a person has learned

Achievement test

19

most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

20

defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group.

Standardization

21

intelligence test performance has been improving

The Flynn effect

22

the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.

Normal Curve

23

the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting.

Reliability

24

the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.

Validity

25

the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (such as a driving test that samples driving tasks).

Content Validity

26

the behavior (such as future college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict; thus, the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity

Criterion

27

the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. (Also called criterion-related validity.)

Predictive Validity

28

a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound.

Mental Retardation

29

a condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one’s genetic makeup.

Down Syndrome

30

a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.

Stereotype Threat