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Social cognition

How children come to understand their multifaceted social world

1

Self-recognition

Identification of the self as a physically unique being

2

Scale errors

Attempting to do things that their body size makes impossible

3

Categorical self

Classification of oneself on the basis of perceptually distinct attributes and behaviors- age, gender, physical characteristics

4

Remember self

An autobiographical memory in a narrative

5

Enduring self

A view of themselves as persisting over time

6

Inner self

Of private thoughts and imaginings

7

Perspective talking

The capacity to imagine what others might be thinking and feeling and to distinguish those viewpoints from ones own

8

Desire theory of mind

People always act in ways consistent weir desires and do not realize that less obvious, more interpretive mental states, such as beliefs, also affect behavior

9

Believe-desire theory of mind

A more advanced view in which both beliefs and desires determine actions

10

Self-concept

The set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is

11

Social comparisons

Judgements of their own appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to those of others

12

Generalized other

A blend of what we imagine important people in our lives think of us

13

Self-esteem

The judgements we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgements

14

Attributions

Are our common, everyday explanations for the cause of behavior-our answers to the question. Why did I or another person do that?

15

Achievement motivation

The tendency to persist at challenging tasks

16

Mastery-oriented attributions

Crediting their successes to ability

17

Incremental view of ability

That it can increase through effort

18

Learned helplessness

Attribute their failures, not their successes, to ability. When they succeed they are likely to attribute it to luck

19

Attribution retraining

Encourages learned helplessness children to believe that they can overcome failure by exerting more effort

20

Identity

Involves defining who you are, what you value, and the directions you choose to pursue in life

21

Person perception

Refers to the way we size up the qualities of people with whom we are familiar

22

Social problem solving

Generating and applying strategies that prevent or resolve disagreements, resulting in outcomes that are both acceptable to others and beneficial to the self