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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (38):
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Phonology

Refers to the rules governing the structure and sequence of speech sounds

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Semantics

The second component, involves vocabulary--the way underlying concepts are expressed in words and word combinations

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Grammar

The third component of language, consists of two main parts. The syntax, and morphology

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Syntax

The rules by which words are arranged into sequences

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Morphology

The use of grammatical markers indicating number, tense, case, person, gender, active or passive voice,

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Pragmatics

Refers to the rules for engaging in appropriate and effective communication

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Language acquisition device

An innate system that permits them, once they have acquired sufficient vocabulary, to combine words into grammatically consistent, novel utterances and to understand the meaning of sentences they hear

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Universal grammar

A built-in storehouse of rules common to all human languages

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Broca's area

Located in the left frontal lobe, supports grammatical processing and language production

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Wernicke's area

Located in the left temporal lobe, plays a role in comprehending word meaning

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Phonemes

The smallest sound units that signal a change in meaning, such as the difference between the constant sounds in "pa" and "ba"

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Categorical speech perception

This tendency to perceive as identical a range of sounds that belong to the same phenomic class

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Infant-directed speech

A form of communication made up of short sentences with high-pitched, exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation, distinct pauses between speech segments, clear gestures to support verbal meanin, and repetition of new words In a variety of contexts

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Babbling

Infants constantly make consonant-vowel sounds, often in long strings

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Joint attention

In which the child attends to the same object or event as the caregiver

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Protodeclarative

In which baby points to or touches or holds up an object while looking at others to make sure they notice.

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Protoimperative

Baby gets another person to do something by reaching, pointing, and often making sounds at the same time

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Comprehension

The language they understand develops ahead of production

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Production

The language they use

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Fast mapping

Children can connect a new word with underlying concept after only a brief encounter

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Referential style

Their vocabularies consist mainly of words that refer to objects

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Expressive style

Compared with referential children they initially produce many more social formulas and pronouns

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Underextension

The error of applying words too narrowly

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Overextension

Applying a word to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate

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Phonological store

Permits us to retain speech-based information

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Mutual exclusivity bias

The assumption that words refer to entirely separate categories

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Syntactic bootstrapping

According to one proposal, preschoolers discover many word meanings by observing how words are used in syntax

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Telegraphic speech

Two word utterances that focus on high-content words and omit smaller, less important ones

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Grammatical morphemes

Small markers that change the meaning of sentences

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Overregularization

An error in which children apply a regular morphological rule, and extend it to words that are exceptions

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Semantic bootstrapping

They use word meanings to figure out sentence structure. Children might begin by grouping together words with "agent qualities" as subjects and words with "action qualities" as verbs.

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Recasts

Restructuring inaccurate speech into correct form

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Expansions

Elaborating on children's speech, increasing its complexity

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Turnabout

The speaker not only comments on what has just been said but also adds a request to get the partner to respond

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Shading

In which the speaker initiates a change of topic gradually by modifying the focus of discussion

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Illocutionary intent

What a speaker means to say, even if the form of the utterance is not perfectly consistent with it

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Speech registers

Language adaptations to social expectations

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Metalinguistic awareness

The ability to think about language as a system