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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (36):
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Sensory register

A broad panorama of sights and sounds are represented directly but stored only momentarily

1

Short-term memory store

We retain attended-to information briefly so we can actively "work" on it to reach our goals

2

Working memory

The number of items that can be briefly held in mind while also a facing in some effort to monitor or manipulate those items

3

Central executive

Directs the flow of information, implementing the basic procedures just mentioned and also engaging in more sophisticated activities that enable complex flexible thinking.

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Automatic process

Are so well-learned that the require no space in working memory and, therefore, permit us to focus on other information while simultaneously performing them.

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Long term memory

Our permanent knowledge base

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Executive function

The set of cognitive operations and strategies necessary for self-initiated, purposeful behavior in relatively novel, challenging situations

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Central conceptual structures

Networks of concepts and relations that permit them to think about a wide range of situations in more advanced ways

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Model of strategy choice

Uses an evolutionary metaphor-"natural selection"- to help us understand cognitive change. Weighing choices in life, given each their own experience

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Inhibition

The ability to control internal and external distracting stimuli

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Production deficiency

Preschoolers rarely engage in attentional strategies. They would usually fail to produce strategies when they could be helpful

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Control deficiency

Young elementary school children sometimes produce strategies, but not consistently. They have difficulty controlling, or executing, strategies effectively

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Utilization deficiency

Slightly later, children execute strategies consistently, but their performance either does not improve or improve less than that of older children

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Effective strategy use

By mid-elementary school years, children use strategies consistently, and performance improves

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Planning

Involves thinking out a sequence of acts ahead of time and allocating attention accordingly to reach a goal

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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Which involves inattention, impulsivity, and excessive motor activity resulting in academic and social problems

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Rehearsal

Repeating information to yourself

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Organization

A strategy that involves grouping related items

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Elaboration

It involves creating a relationship, or shared meaning, between two or more pieces of information that do not belong to the same category

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Recognition

Noticing that a stimulus is identical or similar to one previously experienced

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Recall

Generating a mental representation of an absent stimulus

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Reconstruction

Of information, or recording it while it is in the system or being retrieved

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Fuzzy-trace theory

When we first encode information, we reconstruct it automatically, creating a vague, fuzzy version

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Semantic memory

Our vast taxonomical organized and hierarchically structured general knowledge system, consisting of concepts, language meanings, facts, and rules

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Episodic memory

Recollection of personally experienced events that occurred at a specific time and place

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Scripts

General descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation

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Autobiographical memory

Made up of representations of one-time events that are long-lasting because they are imbued with personal meaning

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Infantile amnesia

That most of us cannot retrieve events that happened to us before age 3.

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Metacognition

Awareness and understanding of various aspects of thought

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Theory of mind-

A coherent understanding of people as mental beings, which they revise as they encounter new evidence

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Congnitive self-regulation

The process of continually monitoring and controlling progress toward a goal-planning, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts

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Emergent literacy

Children's active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences

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Phonological awareness

The ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language

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Whole-language approach

Argued that from the beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form--stories, poems, letters, posters, and lists so that they can appreciate the communicative function of written language

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Phonics approach

Believing that children should first be coached on phonics--the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds. Only after this should they approach complex reading material

35

Cardinality

That the last word in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in a set