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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (17):
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Naturalistic observation

An approach that involves going into the field, or natural environment, and record the behavior of interest

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Structured observation

Observation of behavior in a laboratory, where conditions we the same for all participants

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Event sampling

The observer records all instance of s particular behavior during s specified time period

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Time sampling

The researcher records whether certain behaviors occur during a sample of short intervals

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Observer influence

The effects of the observer on the behavior studied

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Observer bias

When observers are aware of the purposes of the study, they may see and recoded what they expect to see rather than what participants actually do.

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Clinical interview

Researchers use a flexible, conversational style to probe for the participants point of view

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Structured interview

Each individual is asked the same set of questions in the same way

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Neurobiological method

Which measures the relationship between nervous systems processes and behavior

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Internal validity

Is the degree to which conditions internal to the design of the study permit an accurate test of the researcher's hypothesis or question

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External validity

The degree to which their findings generalize to settings and participants outside the original study

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Longitudinal design

Participants are studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are noted as they get older

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Selective attrition

Those who continue experiment rather than dropping out likely differ in important ways

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Cohort effects

Longitudinal studies examine the development of cohorts--children developing in the same time period who are influenced by particular cultural and historical conditions

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Cross sectional design

Groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time

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Sequential designs

In which they conduct several cross-sectional or longitudinal investigations

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Microgenetic design

An adaptation of the longitudinal approach presents children with a novel task and follows their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions