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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (24):
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Psychometric approach

To cognitive development is the basis for the wide variety of intelligence tests available for assessing children's mental abilities

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Factor analysis

Which identifies sets of test items that cluster together, meaning that test-takers who do well on one item in a cluster tend to do well on the others.

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General intelligence

He found that all test items he examined correlated with one another

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Specific intelligence

The test items were not perfectly correlated

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Crystallized intelligence

Refers to the skills that depend on accumulated knowledge and experience, good judgement, and mastery of social customs

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Fluid intelligence

Depends more heavily on basic information-processing skills-the ability to detect relationships among stimuli, the speed with which the individual can analyze information, and the capacity for working memory.

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Three-stratum theory of intelligence

That elaborates the models represented the structure of intelligence as having three theirs

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Componential analyses

Of children's test scores, looking for relationships between aspects of information processing and children's intelligence test performance

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Theory of multiple intelligences

Defines intelligence in terms of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to solve problems, create products, and discover new knowledge in a wide range of culturally valued activities.

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Wechsler intelligence scale for children-iv

Is the fourth edition of a widely used test for 6-through 16-year olds

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Aptitude tests

Assess an individual's potential to learn a specialized activity

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Achievement tests

Aim to assess actual knowledge and skill attainment

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Developmental quotients

What are used because most infant scores do not tap the same dimension of intelligence assessed in older children

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Intelligence quotient

Which indicates the extent to which the raw score deviates from the typical performance of same-age individuals

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Standardization

Giving the test to a large, representative sample and using the results as the standard for interpreting scores

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Environmental cumulative deficit hypothesis

The negative effects of underprivileged rearing conditions increase the longer children remain in those conditions. As a result, early cognitive deficits lead to more deficits, which become harder to overcome

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Practical intelligence

Mental abilities apparent in the real world but not in testing situations

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Stereotype threat

The fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype-can trigger anxiety that interferes with performance

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Dynamic assessment

An innovation consistent with vygotsky's zone of proximal development, the adult introduces purposeful teaching into the testing situation to find out what the child can attain with the social support

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Shared environmental influences

Pervade the general atmosphere of the home and therefore similarly affect siblings living in it

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Nonshared environmental influences

Make siblings different from one another

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Creativity

Is the ability to produce work that is original yet appropriate-something that others have not thought of but that is useful in some way

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Divergent thinking

The generation of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem. Divergent thinking contrasts with convergent thinking

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Convergent thinking

Which involves arriving at a single correct answer and is emphasized on intelligence tests