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Prenatal diagnostic method

Medical procedures that permit detection of developmental problems before birth

1

Amnion

That encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid, which helps keep the temperature of the prenatal world constant and provides a cushion against any jolts caused by the woman's movement

2

Chorion

Which surrounds the amnion as a protective membrane. From this tiny finger like villi, or blood vessels emerge

3

Placenta

Permits food and oxygen to reach the developing organism and waste products to be carried away

4

Embryo

Lasts from implantation through the 8th week of pregnancy. During the brief 6 weeks the most rapid prenatal changes take place as the groundwork is laid for all body structures and internal organs

5

Fetus

From the 9th week to the end of pregnancy, is the longest prenatal period. During this growth and finishing phase, the organism increases rapidly in size especially from the 9th to the 20th week

6

Vernix

A white cheese like substance covers the skin, protecting it from chapping during the long months spent in the amniotic fluid.

7

Lanugo

Downy hair that covers the entire body, helping the vernix stick to the skin.

8

Teratogen

Refers to any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period

9

Fetal Alchohol Syndrome

Distinguished by:
1) slow physical growth
2) a pattern of three facial abnormalities (short eyelids, thin upper lip, big indentation under the nose)
3) brain injury, evident in a small head and jimpairment in at
least three areas of functioning; memory, language, and communication, attention span, planning and reasoning, motor coordination, or social skills

10

Partial fetal alcohol syndrome

Characterized by
1) two of the 3 facial abnormalities
2) brain injury evident in at least 3 areas of impaired functioning

11

Alcohol- relatedneurodevelopmental disorder

In which at least three areas of mental functioning are impaired, despite typical physical growth and absence of facial abnormalities. Again, prenatal alcohol exposure, though confirmed is less pervasive than in fas

12

Apgar scale

Used to asses the baby's physical condition by doctors and nurses

13

Natural, or prepared, childbirth

Consists of a group of techniques aimed at reducing pain and medical intervention and making childbirth as rewarding an experience as possible.

14

Breech position

Turned in such a way that the buttocks or feet would be delivered first

15

Rh factor incompatibility

Between the mothers and baby's blood types. When the mother is Rh negative and the father is Rh positive, the baby may inherit the father's Rh positive blood type. This can ultimately cause a decrease in oxygen in the fetuses bloodstream.

16

Preterm infants

Are those born several weeks or more before their due date.

17

Small-for-date infants

Are below their expected weight considering length of the pregnancy.

18

Canalization

The tendency of heritability to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes

19

Gene-environment correlation

Our genes influence the environments to which we are exposed

20

Epigenesis

Means development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment