Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (23):
Is an inborn, automatic response to a particular form the of stimulation
States of Arousal
Degrees if sleep or wakefulness
Rapid eye movement sleep
Brainwave activity, measured with EEG is remarkably similar to that of the waking state. The eyes dart beneath the lids, heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing are uneven, slight body movements occur
The body is almost motionless, and heart rate, breathing, and brain wave activity are slow and even
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
The unexpected death, usually during the night, of an infant younger than 1 year of age that remains unexplained after thorough investigation.
Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
Evaluates the baby's reflexes, muscle tone, state changes, responsive to physical and social stimuli,and other reactions
Refers to a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation
A new stimulus- change in the environment--causes the habituated response to return to a high level
By copying the behavior of another person
In the cerebral cortex, that underlie these capacities. Mirror neurons fire identically when a private hears or sees an action and when it carries out that action on its own.
Dynamic systems theory of motor development
Mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex systems of action. When motor skills work as a system, separate abilities Belen together, each cooperating with others to produce more effective ways of exploring and controlling the environment
Newborns making poorly coordinated swipes
A clumsy motion in which the babies fingers close against the palm
Infants use the well coordinated thumb and index finger
Statistical learnings capacity
By analyzing the speech stream for patterns--repeatedly occurring sequences of sounds--they acquire a stock of speech structures for which they will later learn meanings, long before they start to talk around age 12 months
Designed by Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk and used in the earliest studies of depth perception. It consists of plexiglass- covered table with a platform at the center, a shallow side with a checkerboard pattern just under the glass and a deep side with a checkerboard several feet below the glass
Refers to the difference in the amount of light between adjacent regions in a pattern. If babies are sensitive to the contrast they can detect two or more patterns, they prefer the one with more contrast.
Perception of an objects size as the same, despite changes in the size of its retinal image
Perception of an objects shape as stable, despite changes in the shape projected on the retina
We make sense of these running streams of light, sound, tactile, odor, and taste information, perceiving them as integrated wholes
Amodal sensory properties
Information that is not specific to a single modality but that overlaps two or more sensory systems
Infants actively search for invariant features of the environment--those that remain stable--in a constantly changing perceptual world.