Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

Developmental Psychology > Chapter 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (23):
0

Reflex

Is an inborn, automatic response to a particular form the of stimulation

1

States of Arousal

Degrees if sleep or wakefulness

2

Rapid eye movement sleep

Brainwave activity, measured with EEG is remarkably similar to that of the waking state. The eyes dart beneath the lids, heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing are uneven, slight body movements occur

3

Non-rapid-eye movement

The body is almost motionless, and heart rate, breathing, and brain wave activity are slow and even

4

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

The unexpected death, usually during the night, of an infant younger than 1 year of age that remains unexplained after thorough investigation.

5

Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

Evaluates the baby's reflexes, muscle tone, state changes, responsive to physical and social stimuli,and other reactions

6

Habituation

Refers to a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation

7

Recovery

A new stimulus- change in the environment--causes the habituated response to return to a high level

8

Imitation

By copying the behavior of another person

9

Mirror neurons

In the cerebral cortex, that underlie these capacities. Mirror neurons fire identically when a private hears or sees an action and when it carries out that action on its own.

10

Dynamic systems theory of motor development

Mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex systems of action. When motor skills work as a system, separate abilities Belen together, each cooperating with others to produce more effective ways of exploring and controlling the environment

11

Prereaching

Newborns making poorly coordinated swipes

12

Ulnar grasp

A clumsy motion in which the babies fingers close against the palm

13

Pincer grasp

Infants use the well coordinated thumb and index finger

14

Statistical learnings capacity

By analyzing the speech stream for patterns--repeatedly occurring sequences of sounds--they acquire a stock of speech structures for which they will later learn meanings, long before they start to talk around age 12 months

15

Visual cliff

Designed by Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk and used in the earliest studies of depth perception. It consists of plexiglass- covered table with a platform at the center, a shallow side with a checkerboard pattern just under the glass and a deep side with a checkerboard several feet below the glass

16

Contrast sensitivity

Refers to the difference in the amount of light between adjacent regions in a pattern. If babies are sensitive to the contrast they can detect two or more patterns, they prefer the one with more contrast.

17

Size constancy

Perception of an objects size as the same, despite changes in the size of its retinal image

18

Shape constancy

Perception of an objects shape as stable, despite changes in the shape projected on the retina

19

Intermodal perception

We make sense of these running streams of light, sound, tactile, odor, and taste information, perceiving them as integrated wholes

20

Amodal sensory properties

Information that is not specific to a single modality but that overlaps two or more sensory systems

21

Differentiation theory

Infants actively search for invariant features of the environment--those that remain stable--in a constantly changing perceptual world.

22

Affordances

The action possibilities that a situation offers an organism with certain motor capabilities