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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue Deck (58)
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1

General term for any process (ason or dentrite) projecting from the cell of a neuron. 

Nerve Fiber

2

A neuronal process that carries electriacal signals, usually graded potentials, toward the cell body. 

Dendrite 

3

Multilayered lipid and protein covering, formed by Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes, around axos of many peripheral and central nervous system neurons. 

Myelin Sheath

4

One of the 31 pairs of nerves that originate on the spinal cord from posterior and anterior roots.

Spinal nerve

5

A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that produces actions similar to those result from sympathetic stimulation. Also called noradrenaline

Norepinephrine

6

The breakdown of Nissl bodies into finely granular masses in the cell body of a neuron whose axon has been damaged

Chromatolysis

7

 one of the two subdivisions of the atonomic nervous system, having cell bodies of preganglionic neurons in nuclei in the brain stem and  in the lateral gray horn of the sacral portion of the spinal cord; primarily concerned with activities that conserve and restore body energy. 

Parasympathetic division

8

Espanded distal end of an axon terminal that contains synaptic vesicles. Also called a synaptic knob.

Synaptic end bulb

9

A mass of nerve tissue located in the vertebral canal from which 31 pairs of spinal nerve originate. 

Spinal cord

10

A sunaptic arrangment in which the synaptic end bulbs of one presynaptic neuron terminate on several postsynaptic neurons. 

Divergence

11

One of a variety of molecules within axon terminals that are released into the synaptic cleft in response to a nerve impulse and that change the membrand potential of the postsynaptic neuron

Neurotransmitter

12

Usually a group of nueronal cell bodies lying outside the central nervous system. Plural is ganglia

Gaglion

13

The part of the central nervous system contained within the cranial cavity 

Brain 

14

The peripheral, nucleated cytoplasmic layer of Schwann cell. Also called sheath of Schwann. 

Neurolemma

15

Neurons that carry sensory information from cranial and spinal nerves into the brain and spinal cor or form a lower to higher level in the spinal cord and brain. Also called sfferent neurons. 

Sensory neurons

16

Degeneration of the portion of the aoxon ad myelin sheath of a neuron distal to the site of injury

Wallerian degeneration

17

Flat neuroglial cells that surround cell bodies of peripheral nervous system ganglia to provide structural support and regulate the exchange of material between a neronal cell body and interstitial fluid. 

Satellite cell

18

Neurons whoes axons extend only for a short distance and contact nerby nearby neurons in the brain, spinal cord, or a ganglion; they comprise the vast majority of neurons in the body 

Interneurons

19

Aggregations or bundles of myelinated and unmyelinated axons located in the brain and spinal cord. 

White matter

20

the part of the nervous system that is embedded in the submuccosa and muscularis of the gastrointestinal tract; governs motility and secretions of the GI tract. 

Enteric nervous system 

21

an organ of the body, either a muscle or a gland that is innervated by somatic or autonomic molor neurons. 

Effector

22

Movement in which a part of the body moves inferiorly 

Depression 

23

A neuroglial cell of the peripheral nervous system that forms the myelin sheath and neurolemma around a nerve axon by wrappying around the axon in a jelly-roll fashion.

Schwann cell

24

Aneurotransmitter liberated by many peripheral nervous system neurons and some central nervous system neurons. It is excitatory at neuromuscular junctions but inhibitory at some other synapses (for example, it slows heart rate)

Acetylcholine

25

Any stres tht changes a controlled condition; any change in the internal or external environment tha excites a sensory receptor, a neuron, or a muscle fiber. 

Stimulus

26

A bundle of nerve axons in the central nervous system. 

Tract

27

Visceral sensory (afferent) and visceral motor (efferent) neurons. Autonomic motor neurons, both sympathetic and parasympathetic, conduct nerve impulses from the centeral nervous system to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands. So named because this part of the nervous system was throught to be self-governing or spontaneous. 

Autonomic nervous system 

28

That portion of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord 

Central nervous system 

29

An electrical signal that propagates alond the membrane of a neuron or muscle fiber (cell); a radpid change in the membrane potential that invovles a depolarization followed by a repolarization. Also called a nerve action potential or nerve impusles as it ralates to a neuron, and a muscle action potential as it rlates to muscle fiber. 

Action potential 

30

Membrane-enclosed sac in a synaptic end bulb that stores neurotransmitters. 

Synaptic vesicle