Chapter 19-The Cardiovascular System: The Heart Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19-The Cardiovascular System: The Heart Deck (65)
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1

Requiring molecular oxygen

Aerobic

2

A pain in the chest related to reduced coronary circulation due to coronary artery disease (CAD) or spasms of vascular smooth muscle in coronary arteries

Angina pectoris

3

The pointed end of a conical structure

Apex

4

An irregular heart rhythm

Arrhythmia

5

Group of diseases characterized by thickening of the walls of arteries and loss of elasticity

Arteriosclerosis

6

A lesion that results from accumulated cholesterol and smooth muscle fibers (cells) of the tunica media of an artery; may become obstructive

Atherosclerotic plaque

7

Asynchronous contraction of cardiac muscle fibers in the atria that results in the cessation of atrial pumping

Atrial fibrillation

8

The part of the conduction system of the heart that begins at the atrioventricular (AV) node, passes through the cardiac skeleton separating the atria and the ventricles, then extends a short distance down the interventricular septum before splitting into right and left bundle branches. Also called the bundle of His (HISS)

Atrioventricular bundle

9

The part of the conduction system of the heart made up of a compact mass of conducting cells located in the septum between the two atria

Atrioventricular node

10

A heart valve made up of membranous flaps of cusps that allows blood to flow in one direction only, from an atrium into a ventricle

Atrioventricular valve

11

A superior chamber of the heart

Atrium

12

Examination by listening to sounds in the body

Ausculation

13

Neuron capable of responding to changes in blood, air, or fluid pressure

Barrorecpetor or pressorreceptor

14

Atrioventricular (AV) valve on the left side of the heart

Bicuspid valve or mitral valve

15

A slow resting heart or pulse rate (under 50 beats per minute)

Bradycardia

16

A complete heartbeat consisting of systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus systole and diastole of both ventricles

Cardiac cycle

17

A group of mesodermal cells in the head end of an embryo that gives rise to the heart

Cardiogenic area

18

The study of the heart and diseases associated with it

Cardiology

19

Groups of neurons scattered within the medulla oblongata that regulate heart rate, force of contraction, and blood vessel diameter

Cardiovascular center

20

Sensory receptor that detects the presence of a specific chemical

Chemoreceptor

21

Tendonlike, fibrous cords that connect atrioventricular valves of the heart with papillary muscles

Chordae tendineae

22

A congential heart defect in which a segment of the aorta is too narrow. As a result, the flow of oxygenated blood to the body is reduced, the left ventricle is forced to pump harder, and high blood pressure develops

Coarctation of the aorta

23

The alternate route taken by blood through a anastomosis

Collateral circulation

24

A group of autorhythmic cardiac muscle fibers that generates and distributes electrical impulses to stimulate coordinated contraction of the heart chambers; includes the sinoatrial (SA) node, the atrioventricular (AV) bundle, the right and left bundle branches, and the Purkinje fibers

Conduction system

25

The ability of cells or parts of cells to actively generate force to undergo shortening for movements. Muscle fibers (cells) exhibit a high degree of this

Contractility

26

A condition such as atherosclerosis that causes narrowing of coronary arteries so that blood flow to the heart is reduced. The result is coronary heart disease (CHD), in which the heart muscle receives inadequate blood flow due to an interruption of its blood supply

Coronary artery disease

27

The pathway followed by the blood from the ascending aorta through the blood vessels supplying the heart and returning to the right atrium

Coronary circulation or cardiac circulation

28

A wide venous channel on the posterior surface of the heart that collects the blood from the coronary circulation and returns it to the right atrium

Coronary sinus

29

In the cardiac cycle, the phase of relaxation or dilation of the heart muscle, especially of the ventricles

Diastole

30

A recording of the electrical changes that accompany the cardiac cycle that can be detected at the surface of the body; may be resting, stress, or ambulatory

Electrocardiogram