Chapter 13-The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves Flashcards Preview

A&P I & II > Chapter 13-The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 13-The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves Deck (52)
Loading flashcards...
1

The structure composed of axons of motor (efferent) neurons that emerges from the anterior aspect of the spinal cord and extends laterally to join a posterior root, forming a spinal nerve.

Anterior root or ventral root

2

The middle of the three meninges (coverings) of the brain and spinal cord.

Arachnoid mater or arachnoid

3

Extension of the great toe, with or without fanning of the other toes, in response to stimulation of the outer margin of the sole; normal up to 18 months of age and indicative of damage to descending motor pathways such as the corticospinal tracts after that.

Babinski sign

4

A network of nerve axons of the ventral rami of spinal nerves C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1. The nerves that emerge from this structure supply the upper limb

Brachial plexus

5

A tail-like array of roots of spinal nerves at the inferior end of the spinal cord

Cauda equina

6

A microscopic tube running the length of the spinal cord in the gray commissure. A circular channel running longitudinally in the center of an osteon (haversian system) of mature compact bone, containing blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves.

Central canal or haversian canal

7

A network formed by nerve axons from the ventral rami of the first four cervical nerves and receiving gray rami communicantes form the superior cervical ganglion

Cervical plexus

8

The tapered portion of the spinal cord inferior to the lumbar enlargment

Conus medullaris

9

The cutaneous area developed from one embryonic spinal cord segment and receiving most of its sensory innervation from one spinal nerve. An instrument for incising the skin or cutting thin transplants of skin

Dermatome

10

The outermost of the three meninges (coverings) of the brain and spinal cord

Dura meter

11

An organ of the body, either a muscle or a gland, that is innervated by somatic or autonomic motor neurons

Effector

12

Connective tissue wrapping around individual nerve axons

Endoneurium

13

A space between the spinal dura mater and the vertebral canal, containing areolar connective tissue and a plexus of veins

Epidural space

14

The superficial connective tissue covering around an entire nerve

Epineurium

15

A small bundle or cluster, especially of nerve or muscle fibers (cells).

Fascicle

16

Non-nervous fibrous tissue of the spinal cord that extends inferiorly from the conus medullaris to the coccyx

Filum terminale

17

A narrow strip of gray matter connecting the two lateral gray masses within the spinal cord

Gray commissure

18

Paralysis of the upper limb, trunk, and lower limb on one side of the body

Hemiplegia

19

An area of gray matter (anterior, lateral, or posterior) in the spinal cord

Horn

20

A network formed by the anterior (ventral) branches of spinal nerves L1 through L4

Lumbar plexus

21

Three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, called the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.

Meninges (singular is meninx)

22

Neurons that conduct impulses from the brain toward the spinal cord or out of the brain and spinal cord into cranial or spinal nerves to effectors that may be either muscles or glands

Motor neurons or efferent neurons

23

An encapsulated proprioceptor in a skeletal muscle, consisting of specialized intrafusal muscle fibers and nerve endings; stimulated by changes in length or tension of muscle fibers

Muscle spindle

23

An encapsulated proprioceptor in a skeletal muscle, consisting of specialized intrafusal muscle fibers and nerve endings; stimulated by changes in length or tension of muscle fibers

Muscle spindle

24

A sustained, partial contraction of portions of a skeletal or smooth muscle in response to activation of stretch receptors or a baseline level of action potentials in the innervating motor neurons

Muscle tone

24

A sustained, partial contraction of portions of a skeletal or smooth muscle in response to activation of stretch receptors or a baseline level of action potentials in the innervating motor neurons

Muscle tone

25

Paralysis of both lower limbs

Paraplegia

25

Paralysis of both lower limbs

Paraplegia

26

Connective tissue wrapping around fascicles in a nerve

Perineurium

26

Connective tissue wrapping around fascicles in a nerve

Perineurium