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Chemistry

The science of structure and interactions of matter

1

Chemical elements

Building blocks that make up all matter

2

Chemical symbol

Designates each element. Uses one or two letters of the elements name in English Latin or another language

3

Major elements

Four elements that constitute about 96% of the bodies mass: Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen

4

How many chemical elements are normally present in the human body?

26

5

Lesser elements

Contribute about 3.6% to the bodies mass: Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur,sodium,chlorine, magnesium,and iron.

6

Trace elements

additional 14 elements that altogether Account for the remaining .4% of the body's mass.

7

Oxygen

Major element
O
About 65% of body mass
Part of water and many organic molecules used to generate ATP, a molecule used by cells to temporarily store chemical energy

8

Carbon

C
Major element
About 18.5% of total body mass
Forms backbone chains and rings of all organic molecules; Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)

9

Hydrogen

H
Major element
9.5% Of total body mass
Constituent Of water and most organic molecules; ionized form (H+) Makes body fluids more acidic

10

Nitrogen

N
Major element
3.2% Of total body mass
Components of all proteins and nucleic acids

11

What are the major elements?

Oxygen
carbon
hydrogen
nitrogen

12

Calcium

Ca
Lesser element
About 1.5% Of total body mass
Contributes to hardness of bones and teeth; ionized form (Ca2+) Needed for blood clotting, release of some hormones, contraction of muscles and many other processes

13

Phosphorus

P
Lesser element
1% of total body mass
Component of nucleic acids and ATP; Required for normal bone and tooth structure.

14

Potassium

K
Lesser element
.35% of total body mass
Ionized form (K+) Is the most plentiful cation (Positively charged particle) in intracellular fluid; Needed to generate action potentials

15

Sulfur

S
Lesser element
.25% of total body mass
Component of some vitamins and many proteins

16

Sodium

Na
Lesser element
.2% of total body mass
Ionized form (Na+) is the most plentiful cation in extracellular fluid; Essential for maintaining water balance; needed to generate action potentials.

17

Chlorine

Cl
Lesser element
.2% of total body mass
Ionized form (Cl-) Is the most plentiful anion in extracellular fluid; Essential for maintaining water balance

18

Magnesium

Mg
Lesser element
.1% of total body mass
Ionized form (Mg2+) Needed for action of many enzymes, molecules that increase the rate of chemical reactions organisms

19

Iron

Fe
Lesser element
.005% of total body mass
Ionized forms (Fe2+ and Fe3+) Are part of hemoglobin

20

Trace elements

Lesser elements that make up about .04% of total body mass
Aluminum, boron, chromium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, Manganese, molybdenum, Selenium, silicon, tin, vanadium, and zinc

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Hemoglobin

Oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells

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Cation

Positively charged particle

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Anion

Negatively charged particle

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Atoms

The smallest units of matter that retain the properties and characteristics of the element

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Subatomic particles

Compose individual atoms

26

Nucleus

The dense central core of an atom

27

Protons

(p+)
A stable positively charged subatomic particle Within the nucleus of an atom

28

Neutron

(n0)
Electrically neutral subatomic particle within the nucleus of an atom

29

Electron

(e-)
Negatively charged subatomic particle That move about in a large space surrounding the nucleus of an atom