Chapter 18 - The endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 - The endocrine System Deck (85)
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1

The inner zone of the adrenal cortex, consisting of cords of branching cells that secrete sex hormones, chiefly androgens

Zona Reticularis

2

Substance that inhibits urine formations

Antidiuretic

3

A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that initiates and maintains milk secretion by the mammary glands

Prolactin

4

A membrane-associated lipid; released in small quantities and acts as a local hormone

Prostaglandin

5

a group of hormones of the adrenal cortex that help sodium and potassium balance

Mineralocorticoids

6

Underactivity of glands resulting in diminished secretion

Hyposecretion

7

The effect produced upon stimulation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

Fight or flight response

8

A gland that secretes its products into ducts that carry the secretions into the body cavities, into the lumen of an organ, or to the outer surface of the body

Exocrine gland

9

A cell in the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) that secretes pancreatic polypeptide

F cell

10

a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates the dispersion of melanin granules in melanocytes in amphibians; continued administration produces darkening of skin in humans

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

11

An outgrowth of ectoderm located on the floor of the hypothalamus that gives rise to the posterior pituitary

Neurohypophyseal bud

12

A hormonal interaction in which the effects of two or more hormones acting together is greater or more extensive than the sum of each hormone acting alone.

Synergistic effect

13

The middle zone of the adrenal cortex consisting of cells arranged in long, straight cords that secrete glucocorticoid hormones, mainly cortisol

Zona fasciculata

14

Masculinizing sex hormones produced by the testes in males and the adrenal cortex in both sexes; responsible for libido (sexual desire); the main androgens are testosterone and dihydrotestosterone

Androgens

15

A neuron that secretes a hypothalamic releasing hormone or inhibiting hormone into blood capillaries of the hypothalamus; a neuron that secretes oxytocin or antidiuretic hormone into blood capillaries of the posterior pituitary

Neurosecretory cell

16

Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Also called the neurohypophysis

Posterior pituitary

17

A hormone whose target is another endocrine gland

Tropic hormone

18

A portion of the diencephalon, lying beneath the thalamus and forming the floor and part of the wall of the third ventricle

Hypothalamus

19

Hypophysis

Pituitary gland

20

the science concerned with the structure and functions of endocrine glands and the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the endocrine system.

Endocrinology

21

A mineralocorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex that promotes sodium and water reabsorption by the kidneys and potassium excretion in urine

Aldosterone

22

A secretion of endocrine cells that alters the physiological activity of target cells of the body

Hormone

23

Receptor in the hypothalamus that is sensitive to changes in blood osmolarity and, in response to high osmolarity (low water concentration), stimulates synthesis and release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Osmoreceptor

24

An enlarged thyroid gland

Goiter

25

Supporting cell of the posterior pituitary

Pituicyte

26

A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that regulates metabolism, growth and development, and the activity of the nervous system

Thyroxine

27

A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that produces actions similar to those that result from sympathetic stimulation. Also called noradrenaline.

Norepinephrine

28

A hormone produced by the beta cells of a pancreatic islet (islet of Langerhans) that decreases the blood glucose level

Insulin

29

A narrow strip of tissue or narrow passage connecting two larger parts

Isthmus

30

A hormonal interaction in which the effect of one hormone on a target cell is opposed by another hormone. For example, calcitonin (CT) lowers blood calcium level, wheras parathyroid hormone (PTH) raises it

Antagonistic effect