Chapter 13 - Resistance Training Concepts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Resistance Training Concepts Deck (58):
1

Principle of Adaptation

The ability of the human body to respond and adapt to exercise stimulus is one of the most important concepts of training and conditioning

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Adaptation

Is a function of General Adaptation Syndrome + Principle of Specificity

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General Adaptation Syndrome

A term used to describe how the body responds and adapts to stress

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Adaptation and Stress

For adaptation to occur the body must be confronted with a stressor or some form of stress that creates the need for a response

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3 Stages of GAS

-Alarm reaction
-Resistance Development
-Exhaustion

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Alarm Reaction Stage

Initial reaction to a stressor, activates a number of physiological and psychological protective processes with in the body such as increased oxygen and blood supply and neural recruitment of muscles

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Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

Pain or discomfort often felt 24-72 hours after intense exercise or unaccustomed physical activity
-Basis of Alarm Reaction

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Resistance Development Stage

The body increases its functional capacity to adapt to the stressor
-Once DOMS subsides further work will be met with less and less soreness so that performance may gradually advance

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Exhaustion Stage

Prolonged stress or stress that is intolerable and will produce exhaustion or distress to the entire system

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Exhaustion Injuries

-stress fracture
-muscle strain
-joint pain
-emotional fatigue

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Periodization

Division of a training program into smaller, progressive stages

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The Principle of Specificity

Principle that states the body will adapt to the specific demands that are placed on it

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SAID Principle

Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands

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SAID Principle EX

-Repeatedly lifting heavy weights leads to higher levels of maximal strength
-Repeatedly lifting lighter weights with higher reps leads to higher levels of muscular endurance

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Type I Muscle Fibers

-Slow-twitch, smaller, slower to produce maximal tension, more resistant to fatigue
-Important for muscles that need to produce long-term contractions necessary for stabilization, endurance, and postural control

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Type II Muscle Fibers

-Fast-twitch, larger in size, quicker to produce maximal tension, less resistant to fatigue
-Important for muscles that need to produce movements requiring force and power

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3 Components of the Principle of Specificity

-Mechanical Specificity
-Neuromuscular Specificity
-Metabolic Specificity

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Mechanical Specificity

Refers to the weight and movements placed on the body

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Mechanical Specificity EX

Muscular endurance in the legs requires light weights and high reps when performing leg exercises

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Neuromuscular Specificity

Refers to the speed of the contraction and exercise selection

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NM Specificity EX

Developing higher levels of strength exercises should be performed in more stable environments with heavier loads

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Metabolic Specificity

Refers the energy demand placed on the body

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Metabolic Specificity EX

Developing endurance requires prolonged bouts of exercise with minimal rest
-Primarily uses aerobic pathways to supply energy

Developing maximal strength or power requires longer rest periods
-Energy supplied primarily anaerobic pathways

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Main Adaptations that Occur From Resistance Training

-Stabilization
-Muscular Endurance
-Hypertrophy
-Strength
-Power

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Stabilization

The HMS ability to develop optimal dynamic joint support to maintain correct posture during all movements

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Stabilization Training

Repeatedly training with controlled, unstable environments

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Muscular Endurance

The ability to produce and maintain force production for prolonged periods of time

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Muscular Endurance Function

Helps to increase core and joint stabilization which is the foundation for hypertrophy, strength, and power

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Muscular Endurance Training

lighter weight higher reps

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Muscular Hypertrophy

Enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers in response to overcoming force from high volumes of tension
-Characterized by an increase in cross-sectional areas of individual muscle fibers resulting from an increase in myofibril proteins (myofilaments)

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Muscular Hypertrophy Training

Low-intermediate rep ranges with progressive overload

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Strength

The ability of the NM system to produce internal tension on an external loads

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Internal Tension Within Muscles

Leads to force production

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Strength and Systems

Strength needs to be thought of as a result of activating the NM system
-Using heavier loads increases the neural demand and recruitment of more muscle fibers

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Strength Training and Muscle Fibers

Strength training is designed to match the characteristics of Type II muscle fibers

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Power

Ability of the NM system to produce the greatest force in the shortest time

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Power Equation

Force multiplied by velocity
-An increase in weight being used (force), or an increase in speed which weight is moved (velocity) will increase power

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Power Training and Increased Rate of Force Production

Power training allows for an increase in force production by increasing the number of motor units activated, the synchronization between them, and the speed at which they are activated

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Power Training

Use both heavy and light loads in a super set fashion as fast as possible

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Resistance Training Systems

-The single-set system
-the multiple-set system
-the pyramid system
-the superset system
-drop-sets
-The peripheral heart action system
-the split-routine system
-vertical and horizontal loading

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Single-Set System

Uses 1 set per exercise
-recommended to be performed 2x a week

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Multiple-Set System

Consists of performing multiple numbers of sets for each exercise

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The Pyramid System

Involves a progressive or regressive step approach that either increases or decreases weight with each set
-Light-to-Heavy System and Heavy-to-Light System

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Superset System

Uses 2 exercises performed in rapid succession with minimal rest
-2 Variations, performing same muscle groups back to back and performing opposite muscle groups back to back

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Superset System Benefits

Muscular hypertrophy and endurance

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Drop-Sets

A technique that allows a client to continue a set past the point at which it would usually terminate
-performing a set to failure, then removing a small percentage of the load and continuing with the set

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Drop-Sets Training

Small number of reps (2-4) repeated several times (2-3) drops per set

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Triple Drop

A set of failure followed by 3 successive load decrements performed with no rest

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Circuit-Training System

Consists of a series of exercises that an individual performs one after another with minimal rest

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Circuit-Training System Training

typically low to moderate number of sets (1-3) with moderate to high reps (8-20) and short rest periods

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Circuit-Training Benefits

Great for individuals with limited time and goals of altering body comp

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The Peripheral Heart Action System

Variation of circuit training that alternates upper and lower body exercises

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PHA System Benefits

distributes blood flow between upper and lower extremities potentially improving circulation

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Split-Routine System

Involves breaking the body up into parts to be trained on seperate days

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Vertical Loading

Progresses a workout vertically down the template by alternating body parts trained set-to-set, starting from upper body moving to lower

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Vertical Loading Benefits

Allows maximal recovery to each body part while minimizing the amount of time wasted on rest

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NASM Resistance Training Template

-Total Body
-Chest
-Back
-Shoulders
-Biceps
-Triceps
-Legs

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Horizontal Loading

Refers to performing all sets of an exercise or body part before moving on
-Appropriate for maximal strength and power training