Chapter 3 - The Cardiorespiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - The Cardiorespiratory System Deck (59):
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Cardiorespiratory System

A system of the body composed of that cardiovascular system and respiratory system

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Cardiovascular System

Heart, blood vessels, and blood that transport blood from the heart to the tissues

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Respiratory System

A system of organs (the lungs and respiratory passageways) that collects oxygen from the external environment and transports it to the bloodstream

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2 Systems Working Together

Provide the body with adequate amounts of oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products like CO2 from cells in the body

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The Heart

A hollow muscular organ that pumps a circulation of blood through the body by means of rhythmic contraction

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Mediastinum

The space in the chest between the lungs that contains all the internal organs of the chest except the lungs

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Control of Cardiac Muscle

Involuntary
-Cardiac muscle also contains myofibrils and sarcomeres but cannot be consciously controlled like skeletal muscle

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Cardiac Muscle Fiber Structure

Shorter and more tightly connected than skeletal muscle

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Intercalated Discs

Help hold muscle cells together during contraction and create an electrical connection between the cells that allows the heart to contract as one functional unit

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Heart's Conduction System

Sends an electrical signal rapidly through all the cardiac cells
-Transmitted through the SA node through both atria and down into the ventricles
-Internodal pathways then transfer the impulse from the SA node to the AV node which then delays the impulse slightly
-The AV bundle conducts the impulse to the ventricles for contraction via the light and right bundle branches of the purkinje fibers

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Sinoatrial Node

Initiates the electrical impulses that determine the heart rate

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SA Node Location

Right atrium

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Atrioventricular Node

Receives the heartbeat impulses from the SA node and directs them to the walls of the ventricles

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Atrium

The superior chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into the ventricles

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Ventricle

The inferior chamber of the heart that receives blood from the corresponding atria and forces that blood into the arteries

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Interatrial Septum

Separates the atria

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Interventricular Septum

Separates the ventricles

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Pulmonic Side of Heart

Right side of the heart
-Receives blood from body that is low in oxygen and high in CO2 and pumps it into the lungs and back into left atria

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Systemic Side of Heart

Left side of heart
-Pumps blood that is high in O2 and low in CO2 to rest of body

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Right Atrium and Blood

Gathers deoxygenated blood returning from the body

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Left Atrium and Blood

Gathers oxygenated blood coming to heart from lungs

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Right Ventricle and Blood

Gathers deoxygenated blood from right atrium and pumps to lungs

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Left Ventricle and Blood

Gathers oxygenated blood from left atrium and pumps to rest of body

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Blood Flow Through the Heart

Deoxygenated blood -> superior vena cava -> right atrium -> Tricuspid valve -> Right Ventricle -> Pulmonary valve -> left pulmonary artery -> lungs -> oxygenated blood -> pulmonary veins -> left atrium -> mitral valve -> left ventricle -> aortic valve -> Aortic Arch -> Descending aorta -> body

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2 Atrioventricular Valves

Tricuspid valve, Mitral Valve

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2 Semilunar Valves

Pulmonary and Aortic valves

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Tricuspid Valve

Controls BF from the right atrium to the right ventricle

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Mitral Valve

Controls BF from left atrium to the left ventricle

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Aortic Valve

Controls BF from the left ventricle to the aorta going to the entire body

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Pulmonary Valve

Controls blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries going to the lungs

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Stroke Volume (SV)

The amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction

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SV Formula

EDV - ESV

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EDV

End-diastolic volume
-The filled volume of the ventricle before contraction

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ESV

End-systolic volume
-The residual volume of blood remaining in the ventricle after ejection

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Heart Rate (HR)

The rate at which the heart pumps

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Cardiac Output (Q)

The volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute, the overall performance of the heart
-HR X SV

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3 Kinds of Cells in Blood

-RBC (carry oxygen)
-WBC (help fight infection)
-Platelets (clotting)

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Blood and Transportation

-Transports O2 to all bodily tissues and removes waste products
-Transports hormones and nutrients
-Helps remove heat from internal to external regions of the body

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Blood and Regulation

-Blood helps regulate body temp
-Regulation of pH levels in the body
-Regulation of water content of body's cells

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Blood and Protection

-Clotting mechanism provides from excessive blood loss
-Provides specialized immune cells to reduce risk of disease and illness

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3 Major Types of Blood Vessels

Arteries, capillaries, veins

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Arteries

Carry blood away from the heart
-Aorta largest artery branches into medium sized arteries to arterioles and end in capillaries

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Capillaries

The site of exchange of chemicals and water between the blood and tissues

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Veins

Carry blood back to the heart
-Venules are vessels that collect blood from the capillaries and progressively merge together to form veins

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Respiratory System Function

Bring O2 in the lungs and remove CO2 from the lungs and ensure proper cellular function

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Respiratory System Structure

Includes: airwars, lungs, and respiratory muscles

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Respiratory Pump

Bones and muscles that work together to allow proper respiratory mechanics to occur and help pump blood back to the heart during inspiration

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2 Phases of Breathing

-Inspiration
-Expiration

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Inspiration

Inhalation

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Inspiration Muscles

Diaphragm, external intercostals, scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pec minor

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Expiration

Exhalation

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Expiration Muscles

Internal Intercostals, Abdominals

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2 Categories of Respiratory Passages

Conducting Airways, and respiratory airways

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Conducting Airways (8)

Consists of all structures that air travels through before entering the respiratory airways
-Nasal and oral cavities, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, pulmonary bronchi, bronchioles

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Respiratory Airways

Collect the channeled air coming from conducting airways
-Alveoli and alveolar sacs

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Diffusion

The process of getting O2 from the environment to the tissues of the body through the blood stream
-Takes place in alveolar sacs to get O2 into blood

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Cardiorespiratory System Function

Provide the human movement system with many essential elements while removing waste products

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Oxygen Consumption/Uptake

The use of O2 by the body

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Resting and Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2)

SEE NOTES