Chapter 7 - Flexibility Training Concepts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Flexibility Training Concepts Deck (64):
1

Flexibility Definition

The normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allows the full ROM of a joint

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Extensibility Definition

Capability to be elongated or stretched

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Dynamic Range of Motion

The combination of flexibility and the nervous system's ability to control this ROM efficiently

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Neuromuscular Efficiency

The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, synergists, antagonists, and stabilizers to work synergistically to produce, reduce, and dynamically stabilize the entire kinetic chain in all 3 planes of motion

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Flexibility, Extensibility, ROM, and NM Efficiency

Flexibility requires extensibility, which requires dynamic ROM, which requires NM efficiency

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Postural Distortion Patterns

Predictable patterns of muscle imbalances
-Can lead to decreased NM efficiency and tissue overload
-Represented by a lack of structural integrity

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Ultimate Goal of HMS

Maintain homeostasis (dynamic postural equilibrium)

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Relative Flexibility

The tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns

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Relative Flexibility EXS

-Externally rotating feet during squat to decrease the amount of dorsiflexion required at the ankle
-Excessive lumbar extension during OH shoulder press due to a tight latissimus dorsi leading to decreased shoulder flexion

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Muscle Imbalance

Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint

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Overactive Muscle Imbalance

Forces compensation to occur

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Underactive Muscle Imbalance

Allows compensation to occur

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Possible Causes of Muscle Imbalances

-Postural stress
-emotional stress
-repetitive movements
-cumulative trauma
-poor exercise technique
-lack of core strength
-lack of neuromuscular efficiency

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Muscle Imbalances Caused by or Result in

-Altered Reciprocal Inhibition (length-tension)
-Synergistic Dominance (Altered force-couples)
-Arthrokinetic Dysfunction (Altered joint motion)
-Overall decreased NM control

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Reciprocal Inhibition

The simultaneous contraction of one muscle and the relaxation of its antagonist to allow movement to take place

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Reciprocal Inhibition EX

Bicep Curl
-Bicep contracts while tricep relaxes

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Altered Reciprocal Inhibition

The concept of muscle inhibition. caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits its functional antagonist

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Altered Reciprocal Inhibition EX

A tight psoas (hip flexor) would decrease the neural drive of the glute max (hip extensor)

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Altered Reciprocal Inhibition Effects

Alters force-couple relationships, produces synergistic dominance, and leads to the development of faulty movement patterns, poor NM control, and joint dysfunction

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Synergistic Dominance

The NM phenomenon that occurs when inappropriate muscles take over the function of a weak inhibited prime mover

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Synergistic Dominance EX

A tight psoas leads to altered reciprocal inhibition of the glute max which results in increased force output of the synergists for hip extension (hamstring complex and adductor magnus) to compensate for the weakened glute max

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Synergistic Dominance Effects

Leads to faulty movement patterns, leading to arthrokinetic dysfunction and eventual injury

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Arthrokinetic Dysfunction

Altered forces at the joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and impaired NM communication at the joint

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Arthrokinetic Dysfunction Causes

Caused by altered length-tension relationships and force-couple relationships

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Arthrokinetic Dysfunction EX

Squatting with externally rotated feet forces the tibia and femur to also externally rotate
-This alters the length-tension relationships of the muscles at the knees and hips, putting the glute max in a shortened position and decreasing its ability to generate force
-Biceps femoris and piriformis become synergistically dominant, altering force-couple relationships and ideal joint motion

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Mechanoreceptors (Sensory) in Muscles and Tendons

Muscle Spindles and Golgi Tendon Organs help determine muscle balance or imbalance

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Muscle Spindles

Major sensory organ of the muscle and composed of microscopic fibers that lie parallel to muscle fibers

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Muscle Spindles Function

Sensitive to change in muscle length and rate of length change
-Help prevent muscles from stretching too far or too fast

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Lengthened Muscle on One Side of Joint

Muscle is lengthened due to a shortened muscle on opposite side
-The spindles of the lengthened muscles are stretched leading to a contraction, muscle spasms, or tightness

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Anteriorly Rotated Pelvis

(ASIS moves down and ischium moves up)
-Lengthens hamstring complex
-Created by shortened hip flexors
-STRETCH HIP FLEXORS RATHER THAN HAMSTRINGS

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Stretching a Lengthened Muscle

Increases the excitement of the muscle spindles and further creates a contraction (spasm) response

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Knock Knees During Squat

-Underactive muscle: glute medius (hip abductor and external rotator
-Overactive muscles: adductors and TFL
-STRETCH ADDUCTOR COMPLEX AND TFL

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Golgi Tendon Organs

Sensitive to changes in muscular tension and rate of tension change

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GTO Location

Within the musculotendinous junction (point where muscle and tendon meet)

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Excited GTO

Causes muscles to relax which prevents muscle excessive stress

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Prolonged GTO Stimulation

Provides an inhibitory action to muscle spindles located within the same muscle (autogenic inhibition)

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Autogenic Inhibition

The process by which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitor effect to the muscle spindles

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Tension in Muscle

Caused by holding a stretch
-Stimulates GTO's which overrides muscle spindles activity causing relaxation in the overactive muscle and allowing for optimal lengthening of tension

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Muscle Imbalances Result From

Altered length-tension relationships, force-couple relationships, and arthrokinematics

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Altered Length-Tension Relationships, Force-Couple Relationships, and Arthrokinematics Result From

Poor posture, poor training technique, or previous injury

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Altered Length-Tension Relationships, Force-Couple Relationships, and Arthrokinematics Result In

Altered Reciprocal Inhibition, Synergistic Dominance, and Arthrokinetic Dysfunction

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Altered Reciprocal Inhibition, Synergistic Dominance, and Arthrokinetic Dysfunction Leads To

Decreased NM control and possible injury

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Pattern Overload

Consistently repeating the same pattern of motion, which may place abnormal stresses on the body

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Cumulative Injury Cycle

Tissue Trauma -> Inflammation -> Muscle Spasm -> Adhesions -> Altered NM Control -> Muscle Imbalance -> Tissue Trauma

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Heightened Activity of Muscle Spindles Coming From Spasms

Creates adhesions (knots) to form in the soft tissue

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Adhesions Effects

Form a weak, inelastic matrix (inability to stretch) that decreases normal elasticity of the soft tissue

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Decreased Normal Elasticity

Results in altered length-tension relationships, altered force-couple relationships, and arthrokinetic dysfunction

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Untreated Adhesions

Can begin to form permanent structural changes in the soft tissue that is evident by Davis's Law

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Davis's Law

States that soft tissue models along lines of stress
-Soft tissue is remodeled with an inelastic collagen matrix (can't stretch) that forms in a random fashion

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The Flexibility Continuum

A systematic progression of flexibility training

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3 Phases of Flexibility Training in the OPT Model

Corrective Flexibility, Active Flexibility, Functional Flexibility

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Corrective Flexibility Purpose

Designed to increase joint ROM, improve muscle imbalances, and correct altered joint motion

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Corrective Flexibility Includes

Self-myofascial release and static stretching

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Self-Myofascial Release

Uses the principle of autogenic inhibition to cause muscle relaxation

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Static Stretching

Can use either autogenic inhibition or reciprocal inhibition

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Corrective Flexibility Phase

Stabilization level (phase 1)

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Active Flexibility Includes

Self-myofascial release and active-isolated stretching

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Active-Isolated Stretching Purpose

Designed to improve the extensibility of soft tissue and increase NM efficiency by using reciprocal inhibition
-Allows for agonists and synergist muscles to move a limb through a full ROM while the functional antagonists are being stretched

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Active-Isolated Stretching EX

Supine straight-leg raises uses hip flexors and quads to raise leg and hold while antagonist hamstring complex is being stretched

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Active Flexibility Phase

Strength level (phases 2,3,4)

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Functional Flexibility Includes

Self-myofascial release and dynamic stretching

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Dynamic Stretching Requires

Integrated, multiplanar, soft tissue extensibility, with optimal NM control through full ROM, or essentially w/o compensations

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Functional Flexibility Phase

Power level (phase 5)

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Static Stretching Definition

The process of passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of 30 seconds