Chapter 5 - Human Movement Science Flashcards Preview

NASM Essentials of Personal Fitness Training > Chapter 5 - Human Movement Science > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Human Movement Science Deck (117):
1

Movement

Represents the integrated functioning of the 3 main systems within the body

2

Biomechanics Definition

The study of applying laws of mechanics and physics to determine how forces affect human movement

3

Superior

Positioned above a point of reference

4

Inferior

Positioned below a point of reference

5

Proximal

Positioned nearest the center of the body, or point of reference

6

Distal

Positioned farthest from the center of the body, or point of reference

7

Anterior (Ventral)

On the front of the body

8

Posterior (Dorsal)

On the back of the body

9

Medial

Positioned near the midline of the body

10

Lateral

Positioned toward the outside of the body

11

Contralateral

Positioned on the opposite side of the body

12

Contralateral EX

Right foot is contralateral to left hand

13

Ipsilateral

Positioned on the same side of the body

14

Ipsilateral EX

Right foot is ipsilateral to right hand

15

3 Planes of Motion

Sagittal, Frontal, Transverse

16

Motions in Those Planes

No motion occurs strictly in one plane of motion
-Joint Motion

17

Joint Motion

Movement in a plane occurs on an axis running perpendicular to that plane

18

Sagittal Plane Division

Divides body into left and right halves

19

Sagittal Plane Motion Axis

Sagittal plane occurs around a coronal axis

20

Movements in Sagittal Plane

Flexion and Extension

21

Flexion

Decreasing joint angle

22

Extension

Increasing joint angle

23

Hyperextension

Extension of a joint beyond the normal limit or range of motion

24

Dorsiflexion

Point toe up (Flexion)

25

Plantar Flexion

Point toe down (Extension)

26

Knee Flexion

Bring heel to butt

27

Knee Extension

Moving heel away from butt at the knee

28

Hip Flexion

High Knee and bend forward at trunk as if touching toes

29

Hip Extension

Knee straight, push heel back

30

Spinal Flexion

Arch back forward

31

Spinal Extension

Push chest forward, lean back

32

Elbow Flexion

Bicep curl

33

Elbow Extension

Tricep pushdown

34

Shoulder Flexion

Raise arm up straight in front of body in sagittal plane

35

Shoulder Extension

Arm goes back straight behind body

36

Cervical Flexion

Bow head straight down

37

Cervical Extension

Look straight up toward sky

38

(7) EXS of Sagittal Plane Movements

-Bicep Curls
-Tricep pushdowns
-Squat
-Front Lunge
-Calf Raise
-Walking
-Running

39

Frontal Plane Division

Divides body to create front and back halves

40

Frontal Plane Motion Axis

Frontal plane motion occurs around an anterior-posterior axis

41

Frontal Plane Movements (3)

-Abduction and adduction in the limbs
-Lateral flexion of the spine
-Eversion and inversion of foot and ankle

42

Abduction Definition

A movement away from the midline of the body in the frontal plane

43

Adduction Definition

A movement toward the midline of the body

44

Lateral Flexion

The bending of the spine from side to side

45

Eversion

Bottom of foot points out

46

Inversion

Bottom of foot points in

47

Hip Abduction

Laterally lift leg away from body

48

Hip Adduction

Laterally bring leg into body

49

Shoulder Abduction

Laterally raise arm above head

50

Shoulder Adduction

Laterally bringing arm into body

51

Cervical Lateral Flexion

Side to side bending of head

52

(3) EXS of Frontal Plane Movements

-Side lateral raises
-Side lunges
-Side shuffling

53

Transverse Plane Division

Divides body to create upper and lower halves

54

Transverse Plane Motion Axis

Transverse plane motion occurs around a longitudinal or vertical axis

55

Transverse Plane Movements (4)

-Internal and external rotation for the limbs
-Right and left rotation for the head and trunk
-Horizontal abduction and adduction of the limbs
-Radioulnar pronation and supination

56

Internal Rotation

Rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body

57

External Rotation

Rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body

58

Horizontal Abduction

Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plan from an anterior position to lateral position

59

Horizontal Adduction

Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from a lateral position to an anterior position

60

Hip External Rotation

Turn toes outward (abduction)

61

Hip Internal Rotation

Turn toes inward (adduction)

62

Radioulnar Supination

Palms facing up/forwards

63

Radioulnar Pronation

Palms facing down/backwards

64

Shoulder External Rotation

90 degree angle at elbow, turn forearm out to open chest

65

Shoulder Internal Rotation

Bring forearm into body

66

Shoulder Horizontal Abduction

Move arms in transverse plan from an anterior position to a lateral position

67

Shoulder Horizontal Adduction

Move arms in transverse plan from a lateral position to an anterior position

68

Spinal Rotation

Rotate spine along transverse plane

69

Cervical Rotation

Look left or right

70

Scapular Motions

Motions of the shoulder blades
-Retraction
-Protraction
-Elevation
-Depression

71

Scapular Retraction

Shoulder blades come together, move toward midline

72

Scapular Protraction

Shoulder blades move further away from each, away from midline

73

Scapular Elevation

Shoulder blades move up towards ears

74

Scapular Depression

Shoulder blades move downwards

75

3 Types of Muscle Actions

-Isotonic (Eccentric and Concentric)
-Isometric
-Isokinetic

76

Isotonic

Force is produced, muscle tension is developed, and movement occurs through a given range of motion
-concentric and eccentric

77

Eccentric Muscle Action

Occurs when a muscle develops tension while lengthening
-Decelerates or reduces force
-Moves in same direction as resistant or force
-Known as a negative

78

Concentric Muscle Action

Occurs when a muscle is exerting force greater than the resistance force; resulting in shortening of the muscle
-Synonymous with acceleration

79

Isometric Muscle Action

Occurs when the contractile force is equal to the resistive force, leading to no visible change in the muscle length
-Can be observed when an individual pauses during a resistance training exercise
-Used to dynamically stabilize the body

80

Isokinetic Muscle Action

Occurs when a muscle shortens at a constant speed over the full range of motion
-Requires expensive and sophisticated equipment

81

Force Definition

An influence applied by one object to another which results in acceleration or deceleration of the second object
-Characterized by magnitude (how much) and direction

82

HMS and Muscular Force

The HMS is designed to manipulate variable forces from a multitude of directions to effectively produce movement

83

Length-Tension Relationships

Refers to the resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length

84

Optimal Muscle Length

The place where actin and myosin filaments in the sarcomere have the greatest degree of overlap leading to maximal force production of that muscle

85

Force-Velocity Curve

Refers to the relationship of muscle's ability to produce tension at differing shortening velocities

86

Concentric Contraction on the Force-Velocity Curve

As the velocity of a concentric muscle action increases, its ability to produce force decreases

87

Eccentric Contraction on the Force-Velocity Curve

As the velocity of an eccentric muscle action increases, its ability to produce force increases

88

Force-Couple Relationships

Muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint

89

Proper HMS Movements

Requires proper force-couple relationships, which requires correct length-tension relationships and the joints having proper arthrokinematics

90

Force and Leverage

The amount of force the HMS can produce is also dependent on the lever system of the joint

91

Components of a Lever

A rigid bar that pivots around a stationary fulcrum (pivot point)

92

The Human Body and Levers

-Fulcrum: Joint axis
-Bones: levers
-Muscles: effort, create the motion
-Resistance: body part or added weight

93

3 Classifications of Levers

-First, second, and third-class levers

94

First-Class Levers

Fulcrum is in middle like a seesaw

95

First-Class Lever EX

Nodding the head, top of spinal column is fulcrum

96

Second-Class Levers

Resistance is in the middle with fulcrum and effort on either side, like a wheelbarrow

97

Second-Class Lever EX

Calf Raise
-ball of foot is fulcrum
-body weight is resistance
-calf musculature applies the effort

98

Third-Class Levers

Effort is placed between the resistance and the fulcrum
-Most limbs of the body

99

Third-Class Lever EX

Forearm and bicep curl
-Elbow is fulcrum
-effort is biceps muscle
-Resistance is dumbbell

100

Rotary Motion

Movement of the bones (levers) around the joints (axis)

101

Torque

A force that produces rotation
-Common unit is newton-meter or Nm

102

Motor Behavior Definition

Motor response to internal and external envirnmental stimuli
-Collective study of motor control, motor learning, and motor development

103

Motor Control

How the CNS integrates internal and external sensory info with previous experiences to produce a motor response

104

Motor Learning

Integration of motor control processes through practice and experience, leading to a relatively permanent change in the capacity to produce skilled movements

105

Motor Development

The change in motor skill behavior over time throughout the lifespan

106

Muscle Synergies

Groups of muscles that are recruited by the CNS to provide movement
-Simplifies movement by allowing muscles and joints to operate as a functional unit

107

Muscle Synergies EXS

-Quads, hamstrings, glutes during a squat
-Delts, rotator cuff, traps during a shoulder press

108

Proprioception

The cumulative sensory input to the CNS from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position, limb movements, and sensation as it pertains to muscle and joint force

109

Sensorimotor Integration

The cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering and interpreting information and executing movement

110

Sensorimotor Integration and Form

Improper form will develop improper sensory information delivered to the CNS leading to altered length tension relationships, force couple relationships, and arthrokinematics

111

Motor Learning and Feedback

For a movement to occur repeatedly sensory information and sensorimotor integration be used

112

Feedback Definition

The use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the HMS in motor learning

113

Two Types of Feedback

Internal and External

114

Internal Feedback

Sensory Feedback
-The process whereby sensory info is used by the body via LT relationships, FC relationships, and arthrokinematics to reactively monitor movement and the environment

115

External Feedback

Augmented Feedback
-Information provided by an external source such as a trainer, videotape, mirror, or heart rate monitor

116

Knowledge of Results

Used after the completion of a movement to help inform a client about the outcome of the performance
-Increases client's awareness and augments other forms of sensory feedback

117

Knowledge of Performance

Provides information about the quality of the movement during exercise
-Allows for the ID of performance errors and help improve effective performance outcomes in the future