Chapter 16 - Chronic Health Conditions and Physical of Functional Limitations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 - Chronic Health Conditions and Physical of Functional Limitations Deck (111):
1

Daily Physical Activity Recommendations

60 minutes or more

2

Children and Endurance Activity

Can perform endurance activities well due to their high peaks oxygen uptake levels

3

Children and Submaximal Oxygen Demand

Child tend to exercise at a higher percentage of their peak 02 uptake during submaximal exercise compared with adults leading to greater chances of fatigue during high-intensity tasks

4

Children and Glycolytic Enzymes

Children producing less gylcolytic enzymes put them at a disadvantage when compared to adults when participating in short-duration, high intensity anaerobic activities

5

Glycolytic Enzymes

Required to support anaerobic power

6

Children and Hotter Environments

Higher submaximal oxygen demands and lower sweating rates causes a low tolerance for exercise in hot, humid environments

7

Resistance Training for Youth

Can lead to significant gain in levels of strength beyond that normal associated with growth and development
-Shown to improve motor skills such as sprinting and jumping, body composition, and bone mineral density

8

Aging and Degeneration

Aging has become synonymous with degeneration and loss of functional ability in older adults

9

Typical Forms of Degeneration Associated with Aging

-osteoporosis
-arthritis
-LBP
-obesity

10

Physiologic Changes and Aging

Some considered pathologic (relating to disease) and some considered normal with aging

11

Arteriosclerosis

Refers to hardening (and loss of elasticity) at the arteries leading greater resistance to BF and thus higher BP
-normal physiologic process of aging

12

Atherosclerosis

Buildup of fatty plaque in arteries leading to narrowing and reduced BF
-Caused by poor lifestyle choices

13

Peripheral Vascular Disease

A group of diseases in which blood vessels become restricted or blocked
-Typically a result of atherosclerosis

14

Prehypertensive

BP between 120/80 and 139/89

15

Walking and Degenerative Aging

Walking is one of the most important and fundamental functional activities affected with degenerative aging
-Reduces independence of an individual and can lead to an increase in the degeneration cycles/process

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Degenerative Cycle and Physical Activity

Can slow or reverse the cycle

17

Flexibility in Seniors

Is important as they tend to lose the elasticity of their CT, which reduces movement and increases risk of injury

18

Obesity Definition

The condition of subcutaneous fat exceeding the amount of lean body mass

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Body Mass Index

Used to estimate healthy body weight ranges based on height

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BMI Formula

BW (kg) / Height (m^2)

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Normal BMI

18.5-24.9

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Overweight BMI

25-29.9

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Obese BMI

30 or greater

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Primary Cause of Obesity

Energy balance (too many calories consumed and too few expended)

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Body Weight and Gait Mechanics

Have a positive correlation

26

Training Focus for Obese Clients

-Energy expenditure, balance, and proprioceptive training

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Obese Clients Calorie Expenditure

200-300 kcal per session, minimum goal of 1250 weekly

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Training Priority for Obese Clients

Sustained long-term aerobic endurance activities

29

Obese Clients and Body Position

Keep clients out of supine or prone positions and rather in standing or seated positions to keep client comfortable and avoid hyper or hypo tensive responses

30

Obese Clients and Orthopedic Stress

Recommended to engage in weight-supported exercises (cycling and swimming) to decrease stress on bones

31

Diabetes

A chronic metabolic disorder caused by insulin deficiency which impairs carb usage and enhances usage of fat and protein

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Type 1 Diabetes

Body does not produce enough insulin
-Specialized cells in the pancreas called beta cells stop producing insulin, causing blood sugar levels to rise resulting in hyperglycemia

33

Hyperglycemia

High blood sugar

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Hypoglycemia

Low blood sugar

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Exercise and Glucose Utilization

Exercise increases the rate at which cells utilize glucose

36

Type 2 Diabetes

Associated with obesity
-These individuals produce adequate amounts of insulin but their cells are resistant to insulin and therefore cannot transfer adequate amounts of blood sugar into the cell leading to hyperglycemia

37

2 Goals for Diabetics

weight loss and glucose control

38

Neuropathy

Loss of protective sensation in feet and legs

39

Obesity and Weight-Bearing Activities

need to be monitored to avoid blister and foot microtrauma that could result in foot infections

40

Hypertension

Consistently elevated arterial BP
BP greater than 140/90

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Prehypertensive

BP between 120/80 - 135/85

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Hypertension Common Causes

Smoking, diet high in fat, and excess weight

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Hypertension Health Risks

Increased risks for strokes, CV disease, chronic heart failure, and kidney failure

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Reducing BP

can be done by making better lifestyle choices such as activity, diet, and smoking

45

Monitoring HR in Hypertensive Clients

Is very important as medications and exercises responses may largely alter HR

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Hypertensive Clients and Body Position

Keep in standing or seated positions and avoid supine or prone positions

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Hypertensive Clients Programming

Use a circuit style of PHA system to help distribute BF

48

Hypertensive Clients and Breathing

Avoid valsalva maneuver and overgripping to not increase BP

49

Valsalva Maneuver

A maneuver in which a person tries to exhale forcibly with a closed glottis so that no air exits through the mouth or nose
-Impedes venous blood return to the heart

50

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)

Leading cause of death and disability, caused by atherosclerosis (plaque formation) which leads to narrowing of the coronary arteries and ultimately angina pectoris, myocardial infection, or both

51

Angina Pectoris

Chest pain

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Myocardial Infection

Heart attack

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CHD Causes

poor lifestyle choices

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CHD Clients and Monitoring

Use talk test, RPE method, and pay careful attention to signs and symptoms to watch chest pain

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CHD Prevention

Can be slowed or reversed with a multidisciplinary approach

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Multidisciplinary Approach

Education, counseling, lifestyle changes, exercise, medications

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CHD and Body Position

Perform everything in a seated or standing position

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CHD and Plyo Training

Not recommended

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CHD Training Programming

Phases 1 and 2 of OPT model in circuit style or PHA system

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Osteoporosis

Condition in which there is a decrease in bone mass density as well as an increase in the space between, resulting in porosity and fragility

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Ostopenia

A precursor to ostopenia, a condition in which bone mineral density is lower than normal

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Type 1 Osteoporosis

Primary osteoporosis, associated with normal aging and is attributable to lower production of estrogen and progesterone
-characterized by an increase in bone resorption with a decrease in bone remodeling

63

Type 2 Osteoporosis

Secondary Osteoporosis

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Secondary Osteoporosis Causes

Medical conditions or medications
-alcohol abuse, smoking, diseases

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Exercise and Osteoporosis

Can help slow or reverse the effects

66

Osteoporosis Commonly Affected Areas

The neck of the femur and lumbar vertebrae placing the core in a weakened state and leaving more susceptibility to injury

67

Risk Factor Influencing Osteoporosis

Peak Bone Mass

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Peak Bone Mass (Density)

The highest amount of bone mass a person is able to achieve during their lifetime

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Maintaining Bone Remodeling

Requires staying active enough to ensure adequate stress is being placed on their bodies

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Resistance Training and Bone Mineral Density

Have a positive correlation

71

Osteoporosis Training

Should focus on balance, core strength, and stabilization focusing on the prevention of falls

72

Osteoporosis Body Position

Perform all exercises in standing or seated position

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Training Intensity and Bone Formation

Higher intensities (75-85%) are needed to stimulate bone formation

74

Osteoporosis Programming

Circuit style or PHA system focusing on hips, thighs, backs, and arms

75

Arthritis

Chronic inflammation of the joint

76

Two Most Common Types Arthritis

-Osteoarthritis
-Rheumatoid Arthritis

77

Osteoarthritis

Cartilage becomes soft, frayed, or thins out as a result of trauma or other conditions

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Lack of Cartilage

Creates a wearing surface of the articulating bones causing pain and inflammation

79

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissues causing an inflammatory response leading to pain and stiffness

80

Pain after Exercise

Pain persisting for more than our hour after exercise is an indication that exercise should be eliminated or modified

81

Arthritis and Reps and Intensity

Avoid high reps and higher intensities to decrease joint aggravation

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Program Recommends for Clients with Arthritis

Low-volume circuit programs or multiple session format

83

Osteoarthritis and Knee Extensors

People with osteoarthritis exhibit a loss in knee extensor strength

84

Inactivity and Arthritis

Inactivity heightens symptoms as a result of muscle atrophy and loss of flexibility

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Body Position with Arthritis

Performing exercises in a standing or seated position increases functional capacity and balance

86

Plyo Training and Arthritis

Not recommended

87

Arthritis and OPT Phase

Phase 1 with modified reps (10-12) to avoid heavy, repetitive joint loading

88

CR Training and Arthritis

Start in stage 1 and progress with physicians advice

89

Cancer

Any various types of malignant neoplasms, most of which invade surrounding tissues, may metasize to several sites, and are likely to recur after attempted removal

90

Cancer Symptoms

Vary widely and are very important to keep an eye on as a trainer

91

Cancer and SMR

Not recommended for clients receiving chemo or radiation treatments

92

Cancer Clients and CR Training

Very important and beneficial

93

Core and Balance with Cancer Clients

Very important

94

Cancer Clients Phases

Phases 1 and 2

95

Exercise and Pregnancy

Many benefits for mother and child, moderate levels of exercise until third trimester

96

Returning to Exercise after Birth

Needs to not be rushed into and understood that physiologic changes occurred may persist for 1 - 1.5 month

97

First Trimester Phases

1 and 2

98

Second and Third Trimester Phases

1

99

Chronic Lung Disease

Broken into two categories
-Restrictive Lung Disease
-Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease

100

Restrictive Lung Disease

The condition of a fibrous lung tissue which results in a decreased ability to expand the lungs

101

Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease

The condition of altered airflow through the lungs, generally caused by airway obstruction as a result of mucus production
-Characterized by chronic inflammation and airway obstruction

102

Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease EXS

asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, cystic fibrosis

103

Chronic Lung Disease Problems

Decreased ventilation and decreased gas exchange ability leading to decreased aerobic capacity and endurance

104

Emphysema

Condition in which the air sacs of the lungs or damaged or enlarged, causing breathlessness

105

Dyspnea

Shortness of breath

106

CLD Training

Lower body training is better tolerated as upper body resistance training places an increased stress on the second respiratory muscle
-PHA Training system

107

Inspiratory Muscle Training

Can specifically improve the work associated with breathing

108

Intermittent Claudication

The manifestation of symptoms caused by peripheral arterial disease
-Characterized by limping, lameness, or pain in the lower leg during mild exercise resulting from decrease in blood supply to the lower extremities

109

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)

A condition characterized by narrowing of the major arteries that are responsible for supplying blood to the lower extremities

110

Peripheral Vascular Disease

A group of diseases in which blood vessels become restricted or blocked, typically as a result of atherosclerosis

111

PAD Training Phase

Phase 1 with lower reps to starts, slow progressions