Chapter 2 - Basic Exercise Science: Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Basic Exercise Science: Nervous System Deck (45):
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Nervous System

Consists of a network of specialized cells called neurons that transmit and coordinate signals, providing a communication network within the human body

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2 Parts of the Nervous System

-CNS
-PNS

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4 Primary Functions of the NS

-Sensory Function
-Integrative Function
-Motor Function
Recruitment of muscles, learned patterns of movement, and the functioning of every organ in the human body

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Sensory Function

Receive changes in external or internal environment

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Sensory Function EXS

-Internal: Stretch placed on muscle
-External: Change from walking on sidewalk to sand

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Integrative Function

Process and interpret the sensory information and determine appropriate response

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Motor Function

Neuromuscular response to the sensory information

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Motor Function EX

Causing a muscle to contract when stretched too far

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Proprioception

The body's ability to sense the relative position of adjacent parts of the body

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Efficient Training of NS

Ensures proper movement patterns are being developed which enhances performance and decreases risk of injury

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Neuron

Functional unit of the NS
-Specialized cell that processes and transmits information through both electrical and chemical signals

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Nerve

Many neurons merged together

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3 Main Parts of Neuron

-Cell body (soma)
-Axon
-Dendrites

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Cell Body (Soma)

Contains nucleus and other organelles including lysosomes, mitochondria, and Golgi complex

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Axon

Cylindrical projection from the cell body that transmits nerve impulses to other neurons or effector sites
-Provides communication from CNS to other parts of the body

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Dendrites

Gather info from other structures and transmit it back into the neuron

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3 Main Functional Types of Neurons

-Sensory (afferent) neurons
-Interneurons
-Motor (efferent) neurons

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Sensory (Afferent) Neurons

Respond to touch, sound, light etc. (changes in external environment) and transmit back to brain and spinal cord

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Interneurons

Transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another in CNS
-process, store, and retrieve information

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Motor (Efferent) Neurons

Transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cor to effector sites such as muscles or glands

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Central Nervous System

Consists of brain and spinal cord and its primary function is to coordinate the activity of all parts of the body

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Peripheral Nervous System

Consists of nerves that connect the CNS to rest of the body and external environment

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Nerves of PNS

-12 Cranial Nerves
-31 pairs of spinal nerves
-How the CNS receives sensory input and initiates responses

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Function of PNS Nerves

-Provide a connection for NS to activate different effector sites
-Relay information from effector sites back to brain via sensory receptors

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2 Divisions of PNS

-Somatic NS
-Autonomic NS

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Somatic NS

Consists of the nerves that serve the outer areas of the body and skeletal muscle and are largely responsible for the voluntary control of movement

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Autonomic NS

Supplies neural input to the involuntary systems of the body (heart, digestive, endocrine)

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2 Divisions of Autonomic NS

-Sympathetic
-Parasympathetic

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Sympathetic

Increase levels of activation in preparation for activity

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Parasympathetic

Decrease levels of activation during rest and recover

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Sensory Receptors

Specialized structures located throughout the body that convert environmental stimuli into sensory information that the brain and spinal cord use to produce a response

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4 Categories of Sensory Receptors

-Mechanoreceptors
-Nociceptors
-Chemoreceptors
-Photoreceptors

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Mechanoreceptors

Respond to mechanical forces (touch, pressure, stretching, sound waves and motion) and transmit impulses through sensory nerves

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Nociceptors

Respond to pain

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Chemoreceptors

Respond to chemical interaction (smell and taste)

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Photoreceptors

Respond to light (vision)

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Mechanoreceptors Location

Located in muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joint capsules

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Mechanoreceptors Include

Muscle spindles, golgi tendon organs, and joint receptors

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Muscle Spindles

Sensory receptors within muscles that run parallel to the muscle fibers and are sensitive to change in muscle length and rate of length change

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Muscle Being Stretched

The spindles are also stretched which conveys information about its length to the CNS that can then determine the position of various body parts

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Muscle Spindle Being Stretched

Sends an impulse immediately to the spinal cord to contract the muscle

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Golgi Tendon Organs

Specialized sensory receptors located at the point where skeletal muscle fibers insert into the tendons of skeletal muscle.

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Activation of GTO

Change in muscular tension and rate of tension change
-Will cause the muscle to relax, which prevents the muscle from excessive stress or possibility of injury

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Joint Receptors

Located in and around the joint capsule and respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration of the joint
-Act to signal extreme joint positions and thus help to prevent injury

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Joint Receptor EXS

Ruffini Endings and Pacinian Corpuscles