Chapter 14 - Integrated Program Design and the OPT Model Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Integrated Program Design and the OPT Model Deck (86):
1

Benefits of Multicomponent Programs

Decrease injury and improves overall performance

2

Program Design Definition

A purposeful system or plan put together to help an individual achieve a specific goal

3

Personal Trainers Must Understand

-Acute Variables
-The OPT Model (Periodization)
-The 5 Phases of Training in the OPT Model
-Overall application of everything

4

OPT Model Purpose

developed to improve all functional abilities

5

Acute Variables Definition

Important components that specify how each exercise is to be performed
-Determine the amount of stress placed on the body and what adaptations will occur

6

Foundation of Program Design

Acute Variables

7

Acute Variables of Training (9)

-repetitions
-sets
-training intensity
-rep tempo
-training volume
-rest interval
-training frequency
-training duration
-exercise selection

8

Repetitions

One complete movement of a particular exercise
-Involve 3 muscle actions: concentric, isometric, eccentric

9

Rep Range and Adaptations

Training in a specific rep range yields specific adaptations

10

Muscular Endurance and Stabilization Rep Range

12-20 reps at 50-70% of 1RM

11

Hypertrophy Rep Range

6-12 reps at 75-85% of 1RM

12

Maximal Strength Rep Range

1-5 reps at 85-100% of 1RM

13

Power Rep Range

1-10 reps at 30-45% of 1RM, or approximately 10% of BW

14

Sets

A group of consecutive reps

15

Sets, Reps, and Intensity Relationship

Inverse relationship
-fewer sets with higher reps at a lower intensity and vice versa

16

Muscular Endurance and Stabilization Set Range

1-3 sets of 12-20 reps at 50-70% of 1RM

17

Hypertrophy Set Range

3-5 sets of 6-12 reps at 75-85% of 1RM

18

Maximal Strength Set Range

4-6 sets of 1-5 reps at 85-100% of 1RM

19

Power Set Range

3-6 sets of 1-10 reps at 30-45% of 1RM

20

Training Intensity

An individual's level of effort, compared with their maximal effort, usually expressed as a percentage

21

Muscular Endurance and Stabilization Training Intensity

1-3 sets of 12-20 reps at 50-70% of 1RM

22

Hypertrophy Training Intensity

3-5 sets of 6-12 reps at 75-85% of 1RM

23

Maximal Strength Training Intensity

4-6 sets of 1-5 reps at 85-100% of 1RM

24

Power Training Intensity

Best attainted with 30-45% of 1RM when using conventional weight training, or approximately 10% of BW when using medicine balls

25

Repetition Tempo

The speed at which each rep is performed

26

Muscular Endurance and Stabilization Rep Tempo

Slow-rep tempo
-EX: 4 second eccentric action, 2 second isometric action, 1 second concentric contraction (4/2/1)

27

Hypertrophy Rep Tempo

Moderate Tempo
-(2/0/2)

28

Maximal Strength Rep Tempo

Fast or explosive tempo that can be safely controlled

29

Power Rep Tempo

fast or explosive tempo

30

Emphasizing Eccentric and Isometric Muscle Actions

at slower velocities during the initial stabilization phases places more demand on the CT and stabilizing muscles and better prepares the NS for functional movements

31

Rest Interval

The time taken to recuperate between sets

32

Muscular Endurance and Stabilization Rest Interval

0-90 seconds

33

Hypertrophy Rest Interval

0-60 seconds

34

Maximal Strength Rest Interval

3-5 minutes

35

Power Rest Interval

3-5 minutes

36

Dynamic Resistance Training Effects on Energy Supplies

Can significantly reduce ATP and phosphocreatine supplies

37

Replenishing ATP and PC

is crucial for optimal performance and the desired adaptation

38

Adjusting Rest Intervals

Can regain energy supplies according to the goal of the training program

39

20-30 Second Rest

Will approximately recover 50% of ATP and PC

40

40 Second Rest

75% recovery of ATP and PC

41

60 Second Rest

85-90% recovery of ATP and PC

42

3 Minute Rest

100% recovery of ATP and PC

43

Training Volume

Amount of physical training performed within a specified period
-The total amount of work performed within a specified time

44

Volume and Intensity Relationship

Inversely related
-cannot safely perform high volumes of high intensity training for extended periods of time

45

High Volume Training

Produces cellular adaptations
-hypertrophy and fat

46

Low Volume Training, High-Intensity

Produces greater neurologic adaptations
-maximal strength, power

47

Training Frequency

The number of training sessions performed during a specified period (usually 1 week)

48

Strength Improvements Training Frequency

3-5 times/week

49

Maintenance Training Frequency

1-2 times/week

50

Training Duration

-The timeframe from the start of the workout to the finish of the workout
-The length of time (number of weeks) spent in one phase (period) of training

51

Training Duration Determinants

Function of sets, reps, number of exercises, length of rest intervals

52

Exercise Selection

The process of choosing appropriate exercises for a client's program

53

Exercise Breakdown

Exercises can be broken down into 3 different types on the basis of number of joints used, movements performed, and adaptation desired
-Single joint, multijoint, total body

54

Single Joint Exercises

Focus on isolating one major muscle group or joint

55

Single Joint Exercises EXS

biceps curl, tricep pushdown, calf raise

56

Multijoint Exercises

Involve 2 or 3 joints

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Multijoint Exercises EXS

squats, lunges, step-ups, chest presses, rows

58

Total Body Exercises

Include multiple joint movements

59

Total Body Exercises EXS

step-up balance to OH press, squat to two-arm press, BB clean

60

Periodization and the OPT Model

OPT model is based on periodization

61

Periodization Definition

Planned fitness training
-a systematic approach to program design that used the general adaptation syndrome and the principle of specificity to vary the amount and type of stress placed on the body to produce adaptation and prevent injury

62

2 Objectives of Periodization

-Dividing the program into distinct periods/phases of training
-Training different forms of strength in each period/phase to control the volume of training and to prevent injury

63

Training Plans

The specific outline, created by the fitness professional to meet a client's goals, that details the form of training, length of time, future changes, and specific exercises to be performed

64

Periodization Cycles

-macrocycle
-mesocycle
-microcycle

65

Macrocycle

Annual plan

66

Mesocycle

Monthly Plan

67

Microcycle

Weekly Plan

68

Periodization Main Benefit

allows for maximal levels of adaptation while minimizing overtraining

69

The OPT Model

3 Levels, 5 Phases

Stabilization Level
-Stabilization Endurance Training (Phase 1)

Strength Level
-Strength Endurance Training (Phase 2)
-Hypertrophy Training (Phase 3)
-Maximal Strength Training (Phase 4)

Power Level
-Power Training (Phase 5)

70

Stabilization Training

High rep, low intensity weight, emphasizing core and joint stabilization and proprioception

71

Strength Level

Designed to maintain stability while increasing stresses

72

Strength Endurance Training

Entails the use of superset technique with a stable exercise followed by an unstable exercise with similar biomechanical motions
-EX: Bench Press X stability ball push-up

73

Hypertrophy Training

Specific for the adaptation of maximal muscle growth, focusing on high levels of volume with minimal rest periods to force cellular changes that result in an overall increase in muscle size

74

Maximal Strength Training

Focuses on increasing the load placed on tissues
-Increase volume, intensity, and rest periods

75

Maximal Strength Training Benefits

Improved:
-Recruitment of more motor units
-rate of force production
-motor unit synchronization

76

Power Level

-3rd level of training, designed to increase rate of force production

77

Power Equation

Power = Force X Velocity

78

Increasing Power

Accomplished by increasing force and/or velocity

79

Increasing Force

85-100% of 1RM of traditional strength exercises

80

Increasing Speed/Velocity

30-45% of 1RM of speed exercises (i.e. speed squats) or 10% of BW med ball

81

Power Training

Focuses on high force and velocity
-Accomplished by supersetting/combining a strength exercise with a power exercise

82

Power Training Sample Exercise

Bench X MB Chest Pass

83

Applying the OPT Model for the Goal of Body Fat Reduction

-Burn more calories than consumed
-Only need to cycle through first two phases, with phase 3 being optional
-Use cardiorespiratory training in conjunction with the OPT model

84

Applying the OPT Model for Increasing Lean Body Mass (Hypertrophy)

-Progress training program with higher volumes to force muscles to regenerate their cellular makeup and produce increased size
-Clients are cycled through first 4 phases
-Cardio can be done

85

Applying the OPT Model for Improving General Sports Performance

-Training is progressed and cycled through phases 1, 2, and 5
-Undulating Periodization
-Monitoring high intensity of cardio and intensity of OPT workout on a daily basis

86

Undulating Periodization

Using multiple phases in one period/duration
-Allows the client to train at various intensities during the course of a week, eliciting multiple adaptations once a certain level of fitness is reached