Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Introduction to Exercise Modalities Deck (40):
Describe the basics of Strength Training Machines.
Tend to keep individual in a fixed plane of motion, which limits excessive ranges of motion that may result in unnecessary musculoskeletal stress
What populations are Strength Training Machines good for?
- Who lack stability or have other functional limitations
- Novice lifters to perform superset and circuit training workouts
List the Pros of Strength Training Machines.
- May be less intimidating to certain individuals (new to exercise)
- Can emphasize certain muscle groups for rehabilitation or body building purposes
- Various intensities (load) provided in one weight stack with abilility to change load rather quickly
- Does not require a spotter
- Provides extra support for special needs of clients
- Keeps the individual in a fixed plane of motion, which may limit excessive ranges of motion (may prevent unnecessary musculoskeletal stress)
List the Cons of Strength Training Machines.
- Many machines do not allow user to perform total-body exercises, oftentimes fails to accommodate multi-joint movements that can incorporating the use of both the upper and lower extremities simultaneously
- Moves primarily in one plane of motion and can limit one's ability to develop strength in all planes of motion
- Does little to provide challenge to the core stabilization system and the neuromuscular efficency b/c offers artificial support vs. one's core muscles
- May not be ideal for improving athletic performance
- Machines do not fit all body types and can limit the effectiveness of the exercise possibly creating more stress
- Expensive in comparison to other strength-training modules
List the Pros of Free Weights
- Can be used to emphasize certain muscle groups, or target multiple muscle groups
- Can improve athletic performance
- Can challenge core stabilization system
- May improve dynamic joint stabilization and Proprioception
- Allows individuals to move in multiple planes of motion
List the Cons of Free Weights.
- May require a spotter
- May be too difficult for beginning clients to perform until exercise technique is mastered
- Requires multiple Dumbbells or Barbells to change intensities (load)
- Potentially more dangerous
- Intimidating for certain individuals
How are free weights and cable machines similar? List a main reason why they differ.
- Cable machines allow similar freedom of movement as free weights, but most exercises do not require a spotter
When using the cable machine, it is important to align the line of the pull of the ____ with the line of pull of the ____ being worked.
What are the pros of elastic resistance training modality (rubber bands and tubing)?
- Can help improve proprioceptively demands, muscular endurance, and joint stabilization
- Inexpensive way for resistance training
- Clients can move in multiple planes of motion and oftentimes can achieve a great range of motion during training
- Can adjust the angle of resistance (line of pull) by moving the fixed point it's or lower, and combine several exercises seemslessly
- allows clients to perform resisted exercises that mimic sport-specific movements such as a golf sing or a tennis forehand
What is the main con of elastic resistance training / which individuals may it not be ideal for?
Those seeking to improving maximal strength (phase 3) / hypertrophy (phase 4)
Name the "Four Horseman of Fitness."
The Indian Club
The Medicine Ball
Describe ways/motions to use a medicine ball.
3. Provide resistance for a variety of plans of motion and at a variety of velocities
4. Add load to an exercise: Medicine Ball Squat
5. Add I nstability to an exercise: Medicine Ball Push-Up
Describe the benefits of medicine ball training.
- Increase muscular strength, endurance, and power
- Help rehabilitate from an injury
- The ability to develop explosive power
High velocity movements require a lighter medicine ball, generally less than __% of an individual's body weight.
What are some benefits for Kettlebell Training?
- Enhanced athleticism, coordination, and balance
- Increase mental focus and physical stamina
- Increased oxygen uptake
- Increased total body condition (as opposed to isolated training)
- Recruitment o the posterior chain (calves, hamstring complex, gluteal muscles, spinal electors)
- Increased core stability and muscular endurance
- Increased strength and power
- Improved grip strength
- Increased metabolic demands and caloric expenditure
- Improves stamina: works multiple fitness components at the same time (throwing, catching, decelerating and accelerating)
What is the top priority when program designing with Kettlebells?
Emphasis on the posterior chain, working from the ground up and keeping performance form throughout each repetition
Give an example of how to use the in Phase 1 of the OPT model. Explain the exercise and why it helps.
- Renegade Row
- Improve stability
Give an example of how to use the in Phase 2 of the OPT model. Explain the exercise and why it helps.
- Superset Renegade Row with a seated cable row
- Fulfills superset need with two different motions with the same muscle group activation
Give an example of how to use the in Phase 5 of the OPT model. Explain the exercise and why it helps.
- Superset a squat to overhead press with a kettlebell snatch
- Fullfills superset need with two different motions with the similar muscle group activation at a higher velocity
What is body weight training? Give some examples.
- An individual's own body weight along with gravity provides the resistance for the movement.
- Push-Ups, Pull-Ups, Body Weight Squats, Sit-Ups
What are Open-Chain Exercises?
Involve movements in which the distal extremities (hands and feet) are not in a fixed position and the force applied by the body is great enough to overcome the resistance (such as barbells or Dumbbells)
What are Closed-Chain Exercises?
Involve movement in which the distal extremities (hands and feet) are in a constant fixed position and thus the force applied by an individual is not great enough to overcome resistance (such as the ground or an immovable object).
Is Body Weight Training considered and open or closed-chain exercise?
Most are considered closed-chain (may result in greater motor unit activation, synchronization and greater kinesthetic awareness (compared to open-chain exercises).
Give some examples of Open-Chained Exercises.
The Machine Leg Extension Exercise
Give some examples of Closed-Chained Exercises.
What is Suspension Body-Weight Training? Give an example.
- Uses a system of ropes and webbing that allows the user to work against their own body weight while performing various exercises
What are the benefits of Suspension Body-Weight Training?
- Allows individuals to manipulate body position and stability to provide multiplanar, multijoint exercises in a proprioceptively enriched environment
- Increases muscle activation
- Increases performance
- Potentially increase caloric expenditure
- Improves cardiovascular fitness
- Powerful way to teach proper movement patterns, enhance stability and core strength, a gain metabolic benefits
Which Phases of the OPT model is Suspension Body Weight Training ideal for?
- Phase 1: suspension push-up as chest-stabilization exercise
- Phase 2 - superset suspension push-up after performing a barbell bench press
What are the main uses for stability balls?
- Primarily used to increase demand for stability in an exercise
- Used to reinforce proper posture during squatting movement
- Increases strength and stability of the core musculature when substituted for more stable surfaces such as exercise benches, chairs, and the floor
- Spherical shape of the ball creates an unstable base of support, forcing users to constantly adjust their body position to the subtle movements of the ball
- Reinforces postural awareness during seated exercises
What are BOSU Balls mostly used for?
- decreasing stability of an exercise while increasing neuromuscular activity (particular for injury prevention and during rehabilitation).
Describe how the BOSU Ball can be used in Phase 1 of the OPT Model.
- Overhead press (standing on BOSU) as shoulder-stabilization exercises
Describe how the BOSU Ball can be used in Phase 2 of the OPT Model.
- Superset leg press with a BOSU Ball Squat
Describe how the BOSU Ball can be used in Phase 5 of the OPT Model.
- Certain plyometric exercises can be performed on BOSU
Example: a Bench Press can be superset with a BOSU Ball plyometric Push-Up
What is the main purpose of Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) Training?
- Stimulates great muscle fiber involvement during exercise, leading to greater increase in lean body mass, weight loss, and change in body composition
(When originally designed for astronauts, it was used to increase bone density and muscular strength in an attempt to prevent some of the harmful effects of space flight).
What are the 4 systems involved when used Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) Training?
1. Bone and Connective Tissues
2. Neuromuscular System
3. Vascular System
4. Hormonal System
What are the main benefits of WBV training?
- Improve circulation and cardiovascular function
- Alleviation of muscle soreness
- Weight reduction and increase metabolism
- Increase flexibility and range of motion
Improve overall well-being and potentially reducing the symptoms of Parkinson's Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, and Fibromyalgia
Describe how to use the WBV training in Phase 1 of the OPT Model.
- Perform a prone iso-ab (plank) with arms on the vibration platform
Describe how to use the WBV training in Phase 2 of the OPT Model.
- Perform a barbell squat superset with a step up to balance on the vibration platform
Describe how to use the WBV training in Phase 5 of the OPT Model.
- Perform a row (using the platforms cables) superset with a soccer throw