Chapter 15 Packet Flashcards Preview

Human Biology > Chapter 15 Packet > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 15 Packet Deck (53):
1

Any chemical released by one cell that acts upon another cell (target cell)

Signaling molecules

2

Neurotransmitters are released by what and have what effect?

Axon endings of neurons; they have immediate effect on the adjacent cell (neuron, muscle, or gland) across the synaptic cleft

3

Released by many types of cells; they have their effect in the immediate area; e.g. prostaglandins

Local signaling molecules

4

Hormones are secreted by?

Endocrine glands, endocrine cells, and some neurons; they travel via the blood stream to distant target cells

5

What are the signaling molecules?

1) Neurotransmitters
2) Local signaling molecules
3) Hormones
4) Pheromones

6

These signaling molecules are released to the outside of the body

Pheromones

7

What effect do pheromones have?

They have an effect on other individuals of the same species.

8

While more overt effects of pheromones are seen in other species, in humans ?

The vomeronasal organ can detect some pheromones

9

What are the 3 common types of hormone interactions

1) Opposing interaction
2) Synergistic
3) Permissive interaction actions

10

What is opposing interactions

When the effect of one hormone opposed the effect of another

11

When the sum total of actions of two or more hormones is required to produce the desired effect on the target cells

Synergistic interaction

12

What is permissive interaction actions

When certain target cells must be primed by one hormone in order to be affected by another hormone

13

Endocrine organs

1) Hypothalamus
2) Pituitary gland
3) Pineal gland
4) Thyroid gland
5) Parathyroid gland
6) Thymus
7) Adrenal glands
8) Pancreatic islets
9) Ovaries
10) Testes

14

Hormones secreted by the Posterior pituitary gland and the main targets for each hormone

Antidiuretic (ADH): Kidneys
Oxytocin: Mammary glands, uterus

15

What is the primary action of the posterior pituitary gland

*H2O reabsorption and conservation.
* Induces milk movement into secretory ducts.
*Induces uterine contractions

16

Hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland

1) Trophic hormones: ACTH, TSH, FSH, LC
2) Prolactin (PRL)
3) Growth hormone (GH)

17

Main target for the Anterior pituitary hormones

1) Adrenal cortex
2) Thyroid gland
3) Ovaries, testes
4) Mammary glands
5) Most cells

18

Primary action from the Anterior pituitary gland

*Stimulates release of adrenal steroid hormones
*Stimulates release of thyroid hormones
*Stimulates gamete formation
*Stimulates ovulation, corpus luteum formation
*Stimulates testosterone secretion, sperm release
*Stimulates and sustains milk production
*Promotes growth, glucose/protein metabolism

19

Hormones secreted by the Pancreatic islets and their main target

Hormones: Insulin and Glucagon
Main target: Muscle, adipose, liver

20

Primary action for pancreatic islets gland

*Lowers blood sugar level
*Raises blood sugar level

21

Hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex gland and their main target

Hormone: Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids (includes aldosterone)
Main target: Most cells, kidney

22

Primary action from the Adrenal cortex gland

*Promotes protein breakdown and conversion to glucose
*Promotes Na+ reabsorption, control of salt-water balance

23

Hormones secreted by the Adrenal medulla gland and their main target

Hormones: Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Main target: Liver, Muscle, adipose tissue, blood vessel, smooth muscle

24

Primary action from the adrenal medulla

*Raises blood sugar and fatty acid levels
*Increases both rate and force of heart contractions
*Promotes constriction or dilation of blood vessels

25

Hormones secreted by the thyroid gland and their main target

Hormones: Thyroxine and Calcitonin
Main target: Most cells & bone

26

Primary action from the thyroid gland

*Regulates metabolism, growth & development
*Lowers blood Ca++ level

27

Hormone secreted by the Parathyroid gland and their main target

Hormone: Parathyroid h. (PTH)
Main target: Bone & kidney

28

Primary action by the parathyroid gland

Raises blood Ca++ level

29

Hormone secreted by the thymus gland and its main target

Hormone: Thymosins
Main target: Lymphocytes

30

Primary action from the thymus gland

Roles in immune response

31

Hormones secreted by the gonads testes (males) and ovaries (female) and their main targets

Gonads testes hormone: Androgens (includes testosterone
Ovaries (female): Estrogens & progesterone
Main targets: General, uterus & breats

32

Primary action by gonads (testes) and ovaries

*Role in development of genitals & maintenance of male/female sexual traits, sperm formation & growth
*Required for egg maturation & release, proliferation of uterine lining
*Prepares & maintains uterine lining for pregnancy, stimulates breast development

33

Hormones secreted by the pineal gland and its main target

Hormone: Melatonin
Main target: Hypothalamus

34

Primary action from the pineal

Influences daily biorhythms

35

Steroid hormones are synthesized from

Cholesterol (a form lipid), thus is lipid soluble

36

These hormones can readily diffuse through cell membranes and bind to an internal receptor molecule within the cell

Steroid hormones

37

The steroid will either diffuse into the cell nucleus and bind to a receptor there, or

It will bind w/the receptor in the cytoplasm, & then the hormone-receptor complex together will move into the cell nucleus

38

The hormone-receptor complex will interact with a

Specific segment of the cells DNA to either trigger protein synthesis or shut it off

39

Include derivatives of amino acids (amines & peptide hormones), larger proteins, or proteins bound to oligosaccharides (glycoproteins). These are H2O soluble

Proteinaceous hormones

40

The proteinaceous hormone receptor complex can enter the cell through

Endocytosis & the effect target cell activity

41

How can the hormone-receptor complex trigger activity by the target cell for proteinaceous hormones?

By altering membrane activity transport & channel proteins

42

Binding of the proteinaceous hormones to the membrane bound receptor can trigger with

Second messengers within the cell which has a go-between eliciting the target cells response

43

One hormone receptor complex can trigger many of what

Second messengers, thus triggering an amplified intracellular effect from the hormone

44

The master endocrine gland, the pituitary gland, is controlled by what

The hypothalamus

45

Hypothalamic neurons release hormones in two ways

1) Neurons synthesize ADH & oxytocin, then release the FIND ANSWER

46

The hypothalamus receives input for what

Positive and negative feedback control

47

Predominantly nervous tissue extensions of the hypothalamus

Posterior pituitary lobe

48

Predominantly glandular tissue that respond to releasing/inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus

Anterior pituitary lobe

49

What are prostaglandins

16 kinds of fatty acids which have their effects on smooth muscle

50

What are the 4 characteristics of prostaglandins

1) influence localized blood flow by vasocanstriction or vasodilation
2) similar effect on smooth muscle of the bronchides
3) aggravate tissue inflammation & allergic reactions
4) contribue to: menstrual cramping; w/oxytocine, uterine contractins during labor; in cycles where no pregnancy occurs, death of the corpus luteum; presence of sperm may result in uterine contractions that help move sperm deeper into the uterine tubes

51

Growth factors influence growth of

Specific cells by regulating the rate at which certain cells divide

52

Growth factors target cells are in the immediate vicinity of

The releasing cells, they play a role in development by guiding the direction of growth

53

May be used someday to hasten wound healing, even perhaps spinal cord injuries

Growth factors