Flashcards in Chapter 9 Key terms Deck (29):
Common passageway for both food intake and air movement, located between the mouth and the esophagus
Chemical in the lungs that reduces the surface tension of H2O to keep the alveoli from collapsing
Fold of tissue across the glottis within the larynx; creates vocal sounds when it vibrates
Form in which most of the CO2 is transported in the bloodstream
Stage during breathing when air is pushed out of the lungs
What is anatomically incorrect?
The trachea enters the lungs
How is inhaled air modified before it reaches the lungs?
It must be humidified, filtered, warmed
What is the name of the structure that prevents food from entering the trachea?
Branched tubes that lead from bronchi to the alveoli
Reinforced tube that connects larynx with bronchi
Chamber behind oral cavity and between nasal cavity and larynx
Opening into larynx
Divisions of the trachea that enter lungs
What is incorrect concerning inspiration
The lungs expand because air comes rushing in
Air enters the human lungs because
Atmospheric pressure is greater than the pressure inside the lungs
The maximum volume of air that can be moved in and out during a single breath is called?
The vital capacity
If air enters the intrapleural space (the space between the pleura) what will happen?
A lobe of the lung can collapse
The enzyme carbonic anhydrase
Speeds up the conversion of carbonic acid to carbon dioxide and water, and the reverse
Hemoglobin assists transport of gases by
combining with O2, combining with CO2, combining with H+, and being present in RBC's
In humans, the respiratory center
is Stimulated by CO2, is located in the medulla oblongata, and controls the rate of breathing
What is not true of pulmonary disorders
Vital capacity is reduced due to loss of lung elasticity
Name the three parts of the pharynx
How is the structure of the trachea important for respiration, as well as digestion?
It is important for respiratory because it's walls of connective tissue and smooth muscle reinforced by C-shaped cartilaginous rings which prevent the trachea from collapsing
Describe the structure of the alveolus, and explain how it is suited for gas exchange
The lungs have about 300 million alveoli. Each alveolar sac is surrounded by blood capillaries. Gas exchange occurs between air in the alveoli and blood in the capillaries. O2 diffused across the alveoli wall and enters the bloodstream, and CO2 diffuses from the blood across the alveolar wall to enter the alveoli
What are the steps of inspiration and expiration?
During inspiration the diaphragm contracts and becomes a flattened sheet of muscle. The external intercostal muscles contract, causing the rib cage to move upward and outward.
During expiration, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax.
How is breathing controlled?
The rhythm of ventilation is controlled by a respiratory control center located in the medulla oblongata of the brain
Describe what occurs during external respiration
Exchange of gases between air in the alveoli and blood in the pulmonary capillaries. During external respiration in the lungs, HCO3- is converted to CO2, which exits the blood. O2 enters the blood and Hb carries O2 to the tissues
Describe what occurs during internal respiration
O2 exits the blood, and CO2 enters the blood. Most of the CO2 enters RBC's where it becomes the bicarbonate ion, carried in the plasma. Some Hb combines with CO2 and some with H+