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Flashcards in Chapter 8 progress questions Deck (32):

Name the organs and all the accessory structures of the digestive system

1. Mouth 2. Pharynx 3. Esophagus 4. Stomach 5. Small intestine 6. Large intestine 7. Rectum 8. Anus
Accessory Organs:
1. Salivary glands 2. Liver 3. Gallbladder
4. Pancreas


Name the digestive processes of the digestive system

1. Ingestion
2. Digestion
3. Movement
4. Absorption
5. Elimination


Describe the ingestion process

The mouth takes in food


Describe the digestion process

Divides food into pieces and hydrolyzes food to molecular nutrients


Describe the movement process

Food is passed along from one organ to the next and indigestible remains are expelled


Describe the absorption process

Unit molecules produced by digestion cross the wall of the GI tract and enter the blood for delivery to cells


Describe the elimination process

Removal of indigestible wastes through the anus


Categorize the four layers of the GI tract by associating each with a particular illness

1.Mucosa- Diverticulitis
2. Submucosa- Inflammatory bowel diseas
3. Muscularis-Irritable bowel syndrome
4. Serosa- Appendicitis


Describe the anatomy of the mouth

Mouth contains a hard and soft palate, salivary glands, and a tongue


Describe the anatomy of the teeth

Teeth have two main divisions, a crown with a layer of enamel and dentin and a root filled with dentin and pulp


Describe the anatomy of the pharynx

It is a hollow tube at the back of the throat connecting the mouth to the esophagus


Describe the anatomy of the esophagus

It is a hollow tube connecting the pharynx to the stomach


Detail the mechanical digestion that occurs in the mouth

Teeth chew food into pieces convenient for swallowing and the tongue moves food around the mouth


Detail the chemical digestion that occurs in the mouth

Salivary amylase begins the process of digesting starch


Explain what ordinarily prevents foods from entering the nose of entering the trachea when you swallow and why it occurs

The soft palate moves back to close off the nasal passages and the trachea moves up under the epiglottis to cover the glottis


Describe the functions of the stomach and how the wall of the stomach is modified to perform these functions.

Store food, initiate the digestion of protein, and control the movement of chyme into the small intestine;
The muscularis contains an oblique layer that allows the stomach to stretch and mechanically break food down;
The mucosa has millions of gastric pits, which lead into gastric glands that produce gastric juice


Detail the functions of the small intestine and how the wall of the small intestine is modified to perform these functions

Complete digestion using enzymes, which digest all types of food and absorb the products of the digestive process; it contains villi that have an outer layer of columnar epithelial cells, each containing thousands of microvilli


Discuss why absorption of most molecules and nutrients is done in the small intestine and not the stomach

Nutrients are not absorbed through the stomach lining due to the acidity of the gastric juices found in the stomach; once in the intestines, the gastric juices are neutralized


Name the four accessory organs

1. Salivary glands
2. Liver
3. Gallbladder
4. Pancreas


Describe the function of pancreas

Secretes pancreatic juice into the small intestine and insulin into the blood


Describe the function of the liver

Filters the blood, removes toxic substances, stores iron and vitamins, functions in sugar homeostasis, regulates blood cholesterol


Describe the function of the gallbladder

Stores bile


What might occur if the pancreas did not function properly

It would not make pancreatic juices to aid in digestion


What might occur if the liver did not function properly

Bile will not be produced to emulsify fats


What might occur if the gallbladder did not function properly?

Bile would not have a storage organ


Why is the regulation of digestive secretions important to the overall process of digestion? What might occur without regulation?

Regulation of digestive secretions is important to have the correct product at the correct time to digest the correct nutrient or chemical. Without these, the process of digestion could not occur properly and nutrients would not be able to get into our circulatory system and into our cells


Describe the different parts of the large intestine and provide the function for each

1. Cecum and colon-absorb water and vitamins
2. Rectum-forms feces
3. Anal canal- defecation


Detail how the functions of the large intestine contribute to homeostasis

Large intestine contributes to homeostasis by regulating fluid balance and removing waste


Discuss how a disorder of the large intestine can affect homeostasis overall

Without the functions of the large intestine water and vitamin absorption would be deficient


Briefly describe and give an example of each class of nutrients

1. Carbohydrates-Are simple or complex ringed structures and are used as an energy source and include products made from refined grains, beans, peas, nuts, fruits, and whole grain products
2. Proteins-Are long chains of amino acids the body breaks down to make other proteins and are found in meat,eggs, and milk
3. Lipids- Are fats and oils and contain either saturated or unsaturated fatty acid chains. They are used for energy storage


Discuss why carbohydrates and fats might be the cause of the obesity epidemic today

Because they are consumed in excess and with our sedentary lifestyle are not burned off in exercise but stored


Why is it important to overall homeostasis to have a balanced diet?

To obtain all the chemicals and nutrients required for all cells to function correctly