Chapter 9 progress questions Flashcards Preview

Human Biology > Chapter 9 progress questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 progress questions Deck (21):

Trace the path of air from the nasal cavities to the lungs.

Nasal cavities » Pharynx » Glottis » Larynx » Trachea » Bronchus » Bronchoiles » Lungs


Distinguish between inspiration and expiration and what is occurring in the respiratory system during each

Inspiration is inhaling air from the atmosphere into the lungs through a series of cavities, tubes, and openings.
Expiration is exhaling air from the lungs to the atmosphere through the same structures


Describe the functions of the respiratory system

The ensure that O2 enters the body and carbon dioxide CO2 leaves the body


Describe the function and location of each of the structures of the upper respiratory tract

1. Nose-filter, warm, and moisten the air
2. Pharynx-connect nasal and oral cavities to the larynx
3. larynx-sound protection


Name and briefly describe the body systems that have connections with the pharynx

1. Nasal cavity (filters and warms incoming air)
2. Oral cavity (where food is received)
3. Larynx (voice box)


Describe the two pathways that cross in the pharynx

Air passage and food passage


Briefly describe the functions of the organs of the lower respiratory system

1. Trachea-keeps lungs clean by sweeping mucus upwards and connects the larynx to the primary bronchi
2. Bronchial tree-passage of air to the lungs
3. Lungs-site of gas exchange


Detail the structures of the lower respiratory system that participate in gas exchange

Alveoli are composed of sacs surrounded by blood capillaries used for gas exchange


Discuss what might occur to overall homeostasis if the alveoli did not function properly

Gas exchange would not happen and cells would not receive O2 or be able to remove CO2 and will cease to function


Explain how the volume (size) of the thoracic cavity affects the pressure in the lungs.

As the volume (size) of the thoracic cavity increases (when you inhale), the pressure in the lungs decreases. As the volume decreases (when you exhale), the pressure in the lungs increases


Distinguis between the different volumes of air exchanged during ventilation and describe when each is used

1. Tidal volume is achieved through normal breathing
2. Vital capacity is the maximum volume that can be achieved
3. Inspiratory and expiratory reserve volume is achieved through force breathing
4. Residual volume is the air that remains in the lungs after exhalation


Discuss what effect insufficient expiration might have on overall homeostasis.

The body would not be able to get rid of excess CO2, which would affect pH of the blood, energy metabolism, and other important functions


Explain why we automatically breath 12-20 times a minute. Describe what might happen to homeostasis if those numbers were only 2-5 times a minute

The rhythm of ventilation is controlled by a respiratory control center located in the medulla oblongata. If you breath any less that that correct gas exchange would not occur


Describe the nervous system's control of the respiratory system

The rhythm of ventilation is controlled by a respiratory control center located in the medulla oblongata. This center automatically sends out nerve signals to the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles of the rib cage, causing inspiration. When signals are no longer sent, the muscles relax and expiration occurs


Discuss why it's not possible to hold your breath for more than a minute or so

As you hold your breath, blood CO2 increases, which makes the blood more acidic. The respiratory center initiates exhalation in response to the increased acidity


Describe the difference between external respiration and internal

External respiration refers to the exchange of gases between air in the alveoli and blood in the pulmonary capillaries
Internal respiration refers to the exchange of gases between the blood in systemic capillaries and the tissue fluid


Describe how Hb functions in the transport of both O2 and CO2

Hb takes up O2 and becomes oxyhemoglobin, takes up CO2 and becomes carbaminohemoglobin


Detail the influence of Po2 on both external and internal respiration

Po2 allows the gases to diffuse through the membranes and move through circulation. For example, O2 moves out of the blood into the tissues because the Po2 of the tissues is lower than that of the blood


Name and describe the symptoms of some common respiratory infections and disorders of the upper respiratory tract and of the lower respiratory tract

Common infections: Include strep throat (sore throat and high fever), sinusitis (postnasal discharge and facial pain), otitis media (ear pain), laryngitis (sore throat and hoarseness), bronchitis (deep cough with mucus), pneumonia (chest pain, fever, and chills), tuberculosis (nonproductive cough)
Common disorders: Include pulmonary fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, and emphysema. Symptoms of disordes generally include difficulty breathing and increased execration required for breathing


Detail how common respiratory infections can be treated

When the common respiratory infections are caused by bacteria, they are treated with antibiotics


Describe the 3 respiratory disorders commonly associated with smoking tobacco

Chronic bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer