Chapter 9 Textbook notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Textbook notes Deck (96):
1

What happens during inspiration?

Also called inhalation (breathing in), air is conducted from the atmosphere to the lungs by a series of cavities, tubes, and openings

2

What happens during expiration?

Also called exhalation (breathing out), air is conducted from the lungs to the atmosphere

3

Describe ventilation

Another term for breathing that includes both inspiration and expiration.

4

What happens once ventilation occurs?

The respiratory system depends on the cardiovascular system to transport oxygen (O2) from the lungs to the tissues and carry carbon dioxide (CO2) from the tissues to the lungs.

5

Why is gas exchange necessary?

Because the cells of the body carry out cellular respiration to make energy in the form of ATP.

6

What happens during cellular respiration?

Cells use up O2 and produce CO2. The respiratory system provides these cells with O2 and removes CO2

7

What is involved in the upper respiratory tract?

1. Nasal cavity
2. Pharynx
3. Glottis
4. Larynx

8

Filters, warms, and moistens air

Nasal cavity

9

Passageway where pathway for air and food cross

Pharynx

10

Space between the vocal chords; opening to larynx

Glottis

11

What are the lower respiratory tracts?

1. Trachea
2. Bronchus
3. Bronchioles
4. Lung
5. Diaphragm

12

(Windpipe); passage of air to bronchi

Trachea

13

Passage of air to lungs

Bronchus

14

Passage of air to alveoli

Bronchioles

15

Contains alveoli (air sacs); carries out gas exchange

Lung

16

Skeletal muscle; functions in ventilation

Diaphragm

17

What are the three parts of pharynx (throat)?

1. Nasopharynx, where the nasal cavities open above the soft palate
2. Oropharynx, where the oral cavity opens
3. Laryngopharynx, which opens into the larynx

18

Form a protective ring at the junction of the oral cavity and the pharynx

Tonsils

19

What cells do the tonsils contain?

Lymphocytes, which protect against invasion of inhaled foreign antigens

20

Primary defense during breathing

Tonsils

21

What type of cells in the tonsils are prepared to respond to antigens that may subsequently invade internal tissues and fluids?

B cells and T cells

22

In the pharynx, what passages lie parallel to each other and share a common opening in the laryngopharynx?

Air passage and food passage

23

When is the esophagus open?

It is normally closed and opens only when a person swallows

24

What may be done when a passageway remains blocked by food?

heimlich maneuver

25

A cartilaginous structure that serves as a passageway for air between the pharynx and the trachea

Larynx

26

Why is the larynx called the voice box

Because is houses the vocal cords

27

Mucosal folds supported by elastic ligaments

Vocal cords

28

The slit between the vocal cords

Glottis

29

How do we produce sound?

When air is expelled through the glottis, the vocal cords vibrate, producing sound

30

Loudness or intensity of the voice depends upon

The amplitude of the vibrations-the degree to which the vocal cords vibrate

31

A flap of tissue that prevents food from passing into the larynx

Epiglottis

32

Its walls consist of connective tissue and smooth muscle reinforced by C-shaped cartilaginous rings

Trachea

33

What do the rings in Trachea do?

Prevent it from collapsing

34

Lies anterior to the esophagus

Trachea

35

What is the role of goblet cells?

produce mucus, which traps debris in the air as it passes through the trachea

36

If the trachea is blocked because of illness or the accidental swallowing of a foreign object, a breathing tube can be inserted by way of an incision made in the trachea. This tube acts as an artificial air intake and exhaust duct.

Tracheostomy

37

What divides into the right and left primary bronchi?

Trachea

38

What leads into the right and left lungs?

Bronchi

39

What happens as bronchial tubes divide?

As the bronchial tubes divide and subdivide, their walls become thinner, and the small rings of cartilage are no longer present

40

Where do each of the bronchiole lead to?

An elongated space enclosed by a multitude of air pockets or sacs called alveoli

41

Where are the lungs located?

The lungs are paired, cone shaped organs in the thoracic cavity

42

What is in the center of the thoracic cavity?

Trachea, heart, thymus, and esophagus

43

The muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.

Diaphragm

44

Each lung is enclosed by?

Pleurae: Two layers of serous membrane that produces serous fluid.

45

Tendency of water molecules to cling to one another due to hydrogen bonding between molecules

Surface tension

46

Holds the two pleural layers together

Surface tension

47

Each alveolar sac is surrounded by?

Blood capillaries

48

Where does gas exchange occur?

Between air in the alveoli and blood in the capillaries

49

Describe how O2 and CO2 exchange gases

O2 diffuses across the alveolar wall and enters the bloodstream, and CO2 diffuses from the blood across the alveolar wall to enter the alveoli

50

The alveoli of human lungs are lined with?

A surfactant, a film of lipoprotein that lowers the surface tension of water and prevents the alveoli from closing

51

How is infant respiratory distress syndrom treated?

By surfactant replacement therapy

52

Ventilation, or breathing, as two phases

Inspiration (inhalation), moves air into the lungs
and expiration (exhalation), moves air out of the lungs

53

True or False: Normally, there is a continuous column of air from the pharynx to the alveoli of the lungs?

True

54

How do lungs adhere to the thoracic wall?

By way of the pleura

55

Active phase of ventilation

Inspiration

56

Lung volume/air pressure

As the lung volume increases, the air pressure within the alveoli decreases, creating a partial vacuum

57

Passive phase of breathing

Expiration

58

During this, the diaphragm and external intocostal muscles relax

Expiration

59

Why do the lungs recoil?

Because the surface tension of the fluid lining the alveoli tends to draw them closed

60

Maximum inspiratory effort involves what muscles?

Back, chest, and neck

61

Can expiration be forced?

Yes

62

How can we increase expiration?

By contracting the abdominal and thoracic muscles

63

How can we increase inspiration?

By expanding the chest and also by lowering the diaphragm to the maximum extent possible

64

Breathing is controlled in two ways

Nervous and chemical control

65

The rhythm of ventilation is controlled by a?

Respiratory control center located in the medulla oblongata of the brain

66

What does the respiratory control center do?

Automatically sends out nerve signals to the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles of the rib cage, causing inspiration to occur

67

What happens when the respiratory center stops sending nerve signals to the diaphragm and rib cage

The muscles relax and expiration occurs

68

Is it possible to voluntarily change our breathing patterns?

Yes

69

Sensory receptors in the body that are sensitive to chemical composition of body fluids

Chemoreceptors

70

What can cause breathing to speed up?

Two sets of of chemoreceptors sensitive to pH can cause breathing to speed up

71

Where are two chemoreceptors located?

A centrally placed set is located in the medulla oblongata of the brain stem
The peripherally placed set is in the circulatory system

72

When the pH of the blood becomes more acidic (decreases), the respiratory center?

Increases the rate and depth of breathing

73

What happens when a person tries to hold their breath?

The respiratory center, stimulated by the chemoreceptors, is able to override a person's voluntary inhibition of respiration. Breathing resumes, despite attempts to prevent it

74

Respiration includes the exchange of

Gases not only in the lungs but also in the tissues

75

Principe of diffusion governs

Whether O2 or CO2 enters or leaves the blood in the lungs and in the tissues

76

Gases expert?

Pressure

77

The amount of pressure each gas exerts is called its

Partial pressure

78

What happens if the partial pressure of O2 differs across a membrane?

Oxygen will diffuse from higher to lower partial pressure

79

Refers to the exchange of gases between air in the alveoli and blood in the pulmonary capillaries

External Respiration

80

Where does CO2 diffuse?

CO2 diffuses out of the plasma into the lungs

81

Most of the CO2 is carried in

Plasma as bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)

82

Speeds the breakdown of carbonic acid in RBCs

The enzyme carbonic anhydrase

83

O2 diffuses?

O2 diffuses into plasma and then into RBC's in the lungs

84

Refers to the exchange of gases between the blood in systemic capillaries and the tissue cells

Internal respiration

85

Blood entering systemic capillaries is what color and why?

Bright red color because RBC's contain oxyhemoglobin

86

Oxyhemoglobin naturally gives up?

Oxygen

87

What happens after oxyhemoglobin gives up O2?

It diffuses out of the blood into the tissues

88

Carbon dioxide diffuses

into the blood from the tissues

89

When is carbon dioxide produced?

During cellular respiration and collects in tissue fluid

90

After CO2 diffuses into the blood?

Most enters the RBC's, where a small amount is taken up by hemoglobin, forming carbaminohemoglobin (HbCO2)

91

What is the color of blood that leaves the systemic capillaries

Dark maroon color because RBC's contain reduced hemoglobin

92

Where can the upper respiratory infections (URIs) spread?

From the nasal cavities to the sinuses, middle ears, and larynx

93

Develops when nasal congestion blocks the tiny openings leading to the sinuses

Sinusitis

94

Lower respiratory tract disorders include

Infections, restrictive pulmonary disorders, obstructive pulmonary disorders, and lung cancer

95

An infection of the primary and secondary bronchi

Acute bronchitis

96

A viral or bacterial infection of the lungs in which the bronchi and alveoli fill with thick fluid

Pneumonia