Chapter 15 Stuff Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Stuff Deck (85):
1

Orthopedists

Physicians who treat bone, joint, and muscle conditions

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rheumatologists

Physicians who specialize primarily in joint problems, such as arthritis

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Physiatrists

Medical doctors whose focus is on rehabilitation after injury or illness to muscles, bones and nerves

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Acetabulum

Rounded depression, or socket, in the pelvis that joins the femur, forming the hip join

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Acromion

Outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder. It overlies the shoulder joint and articulates with the clavicle

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Articular cartilage

thin layer of cartilage covering the bone in the joint space

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bone

Dense, hard connective tissue composing the skeleton

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Bone depression

opening or hollow region serving as a connection for bones, or passageways flood vessels and nerves.
-fissure, foramen, fossa, sinus

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Fissure

Narrow groove or slit-like opening

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Foramen

Opening for blood vessels and nerves

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Fossa

Shallow cavity in or on a bone

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Sinus

Hollow cavity within a bone

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Bone Process

Enlarged area that extends from bones as attachment for muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
-Bone head, condyle, epicondyle, trochanter, tubercle, tuberosity

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Bone Head

Rounded end of a bone

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Condyle

Rounded knuckle-like process

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Epicondyle

Small rounded process above the condyle

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Trochanters

Large and small processes for tendon attachments

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Tuberosity

Small round elevation where tendons and muscles attach

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Calcium

One of the mineral constituents of bone

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Cancellous Bone

Spongy, porous, bone tissue in the inner part of a bone

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Cartilage

Flexible, rubbery connective tissue. It is found in the immature skeleton, at the epiphyseal growth plate, and on joint surfaces

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Collagen

Dense, connective tissue protein strands found in bone and other tissues

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Compact bone

Hard, dense bone tissue, usually found around the outer portion of bones

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Cranial bones

Skull bones
-ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid, temporal

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Ethmoid

Supports nasal cavity and eye sockets

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Frontal

Forehead; part of eye sockets

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Parietal

Top and sides of skull

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Temporal

Lower sides and back of skull

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Occipital

Back and base of skull

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Foramen magnum

opening through which the spinal cord passes

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Sphenoid

Bat-shaped bone extending behind the eyes and forming part of the base of the skull
-anchor that holds the skull bones together

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Diaphysis

Shaft, mid-portion of a long bone

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disk

Flat, round, plate-like structure. An intervertebral disk is a fibrocartilaginous substance between two vertebrae

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Epiphyseal plate

Cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton

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Epiphysis

Each end of a long bone; the area beyond the epiphyseal plate

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Facial Bones

Bones of the face
-Lacrimal, Mandibular, maxillary, nasal, vomer, zygomatic

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Fontanelle

Soft spot between the skull bones of an infant

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Lacrimal

corners of each eye

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Mandible

Lower jawbone

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Maxillae

Upper Jawbone

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Nasal Bones

Bridge and septum of nose

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Vomer

Nasal Septum (thin, flat bone)

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Zygomatic bones

Cheek bones

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Haversian canals

Minute spaces filled with blood vessels; found in compact bone

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Ligament

Fibrous tissue connecting bone to bone

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Malleolus

round process on both sides of the ankle joint. The lateral malleolus is part of the fibula and the medial malleolus is part of the tibia

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Manubrium

Upper portion of the sternum; articulates with the medial aspect of the clavicle

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Mastoid process

round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear

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Medullary cavity

Central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone

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Metaphysis

Flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis and the epiphyseal plate

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Olecranon

Large process on the proximal end of the ulna; the point of the flexed elbow

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Osseous tissue

Bone tissue

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ossification

Process of bone formation

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osteoblast

Bone cell that helps form bony tissue

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Osteoclast

Bone cell that absorbs and removes unwanted bony tissue

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Periosteum

membrane surrounding bones; rich in blood vessels and nerve tissues

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Phosphorus

Mineral substance found in bones in combination with calcium

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Pubic Symphasis

Area of confluence of the two pubic bones in the pelvis. Joined together by a fibrocartilaginous disk

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Red bone marrow

Found in cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis

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Ribs

Twelve paris of curved bones that form the chest wall. True ribs are the first 7 pairs; false ribs are pairs 8-10; floating ribs are 11-12

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Sinus

hollow air cavity within a bone

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Styloid Process

Pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull

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Suture

Immovable joint between bones, such as the skull

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Temporomandibular Joint

connection on either side of the head between the temporal bone of the skull and mandibular bone of the jaw

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tendon

Fibrous connective tissue connecting muscles and bones

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trabeculae

supporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous bone

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vertebra

Individual segment of the spine composed of the vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous process, transverse process, and lamina, enclosing the neural canal

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Xiphoid process

Lower, narrow portion of the sternum

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Yellow bone marrow

Fatty tissue found in the medullary cavity of most adult long bones

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Articular Cartilage

Smooth, glistening white tissue that covers the surface of a joint

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Articulation

any type of joint

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bursa

sac of fluid near a joint; promotes smooth sliding of one tissue against another

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Ligament

connective tissue binding bones to other bones; supports, strengthens, and stabilizes the joint

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Meniscus

Crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure found in the knee

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Suture joint

Immovable joint,

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Synovial cavity

Space between bones at a synovial joint; contains synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane

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Synovial Fluid

Viscous fluid within the synovial cavity. Synovial fluid is similar in viscosity to egg white; this accounts for the origin of the term

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Synovial joint

A freely moveable joint

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Synovial membrane

Tissue lining the synovial cavity; it produces synovial fluid

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tendon

Connective tissue that binds muscles to bones

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Fascia

Fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles

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Insertion of a muscle

Connection of the muscle to a bone that moves

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Origin of a muscle

Connection of the muscle to a stationary bone

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Striated muscle

Muscle connected to bones; voluntary or skeletal muscle

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Visceral Muscle

Muscle connected to internal organs; involuntary or smooth muscle