Chapter 18 Pathologies and Tests Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Pathologies and Tests Deck (26):
1

Goiter

Enlargement of the thyroid gland

2

Hyperthyroidism

Overactivity of the thyroid gland, thryotoxicosis
-Graves disease
-exophthalmos (proptosis) is protrusion of the eyeballs

3

Hypothyroidism

Underactivity of the thyroid gland
-Myxedema, advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood
-Cretinism, extreme hypothyroidism in infancy and childhood; leads to a lack of normal physical and mental growth

4

Thyroid Carcinoma

Cancer of the thyroid gland

5

Hyperparathyroidism

Excessive production of parathormone

6

Hypoparathyroidism

Deficient production of parathyroid hormone
-tetany (constant muscle contractions)

7

Adrenal virilism

Excessive secretion of adrenal androgens

8

Cushing Syndrome

Group of signs and symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex

9

Addison Disease

Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex

10

Pheochromocytoma

Benign tumor of the adrenal medulla; tumor cells stain a dark or dusky color

11

Hyperinsulinism

Excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia

12

Diabetes mellitus

Lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells

13

Acromegaly

Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary after puberty, leading to enlargement of extremities

14

Gigantism

Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues

15

Dwarfism

Congenital hypo secretion of growth hormone; hypopituitary dwarfism

16

Panhypopituitarism

Deficiency of all pituitary hormones

17

Syndrome of inappropriate ADH

Excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone

18

Diabetes insipidus

insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)

19

Fasting plasma glucose

Measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 8 hours

20

Serum and urine tests

Measurements of hormones, electrolytes, glucose, and other substances in serum and urine as indicators of endocrine function

21

Thyroid function tests

Measurement of T3, T4 and TSH in the bloodstream

22

Exophthalmometry

Measurement of eyeball protrusion with an exopthalmometer

23

Computed tomography scan

X-ray imaging of endocrine glands in cross action and other views, to assess size and infiltration by tumor

24

Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic waves produce images of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to locate abnormalities

25

Thyroid scan

Scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes the thyroid gland

26

Ultrasound examination

sound waves show images of endocrine organs