Chapter 21 Stuff Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21 Stuff Deck (54):
1

Pharmacodynamics

Drug effects on the body

2

Medicinal Chemistry

New drug synthesis

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Pharmacokinetics

Drug's absorption, distribution metabolism, and excretion over time

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Molecular Pharmacology

Interaction of drugs and components inside the cell or on the cell surface

5

Chemotherapy

Use of drugs in treatment of cancer and infectious disease

6

Toxicology

Studies of harmful effects of drugs on the body

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Pharmacy

Drugstore, where a pharmacist prepares and dispenses drugs

8

Food and Drug Administration

-legal responsibility for deciding whether a drug may be disseminated and sold

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United States Pharmacopeia

Reviews and appraises drugs effectiveness

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Chemical Name

Exact chemical makeup of a drug

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Brand name

Private property of individual drug manufacturer

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Generic name

shorter, less complicated, identifies drug legally and scientifically

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Oral Administration

Given by mouth

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Sublingual Administration

Drugs placed under tongue and dissolve in saliva
-ex: nitroglycerin for angina

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Rectal Administration

Suppositories and aqueous solutions inserted into rectum

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Parenteral Administration

Injection of drug from a syringe

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Intracavitary Instillation

-Parental
-Injection into a body cavity

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Intradermal Injection

-Parental
-Made into the upper layers of the skin

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Subcutaneous Injection

-Parenteral
-small needle placed into subcutaneous tissue

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Inhalation

Vapors or gasses taken into the nose or mouth

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Topical Application

Drugs applied locally on skin or mucous membrane of the body
-ointments, creams, lotions

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Additive Action

Combination of two similar drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each

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Synergism

Combination of two drugs causes an effect greater than the sum of the individual effects of each drug

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Response

Desired and beneficial effect of a drug

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Tolerance

Effects of a given dose diminish as treatment continues. Increasing amounts are needed to produce the same affect

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Idiosyncrasy

Unpredictable drug toxicity.

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Contraindications

Factors in a patient's condition that make the use of a drug dangerous

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Resistance

Lack of beneficial response
-drugs that used to be effective are unable to control the disease process in a patient

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Analgesics

A drug that lessens pain

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Narcotics, Opioids

-More potent analgesics
-May induce a stupor
-Only used to relieve severe pain

31

Anesthetics

Reduces or eliminates sensation
-General anesthetics are used for surgical procedures

32

Antibiotics and Antifungals

Inhibits or kills bacteria
Treats fungal infections

33

Anticoagulants/Antiplatelets

Prevents clotting

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Anticonvulsants

Prevents, reduces the frequency of convulsions in various types of seizure disorders or epilepsy
-depress abnormal spontaneous activity of the brain arising form ares of scar or tumor, without affecting normal brain function

35

Antidepressant

Treat symptoms of depression
-elevate mood, increase physical activity and mental alertness, improve appetite and sleep patterns

36

Anti-Alzheimer

treat symptoms of alzheimers

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Antidiabetics

Used to treat Diabetes Mellitus

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Antihistamines

Block the cation of histmine

39

Cardiovascular Drugs

Act on the heart or blood vessels to treat hypertension, angina, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmias

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Angiotensin-Converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

(CD) Dilate blood vessels to lower blood pressure, improve heart performance, and reduce workload
-reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, and death

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Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)

(CD) Lower blood pressure by preventing angiotensin from acting on receptors in blood vessels

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Antiarrhythmics

(CD) Reverse abnormal heart rhythms

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Beta-blockers

(CD) decrease muscular tone in blood vessels, slow heart rate, decrease output of the heart, and reduce blood pressure

44

Calcium channel blockers

(CD) dilate blood vessels and lower blood pressure and are used to treat angina and arrhythmias. Inhibit entry of calcium into muscles of the heart and blood vessels

45

Cardiac glycosides

(CD) Made from digitalis (foxglove)
-increase the force of contraction of the heart and treat heart failure and Afib

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Cholesterol-binding drugs

(CD) bind to dietary cholesterol and prevent its uptake from the gastrointestinal tract

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Chloesterol-lowering drugs

(CD) control hypercholesterolemia
-reduce cholesterol production in the liver

48

Diuretics

(CD) Reduce the volume of blood in the body by promoting kidney to remove water and salt through urine

49

Endocrine drugs

Act similarly to naturally occurring hormones

50

Gastrointestinal drugs

relieve uncomfortable and potentially dangerous symptoms

51

Respiratory Drugs

Prescribed fro the treatment of asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and bronchospasm
-bronchodilators
-steroids
-leukotriene modifiers (prevent asthma attacks)

52

Sedative-Hypnotics

medication that depress the central nervous system and promote drowsiness and sleep
-insomnia, sleep disorders

53

Stimulants

acton the brain to speed up vital processes (heart and respiration) in cases of shock and collapse

54

Tranquilizers

Control anxiety