Chapter 18 stuff Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 stuff Deck (50):
1

Pineal Gland

-central portion of the brain
-secretes melatonin

2

Melatonin

-secreted by pineal gland
-supports biological clock, induces sleep

3

Thyroid Gland

-right and left lobe on either side of the trachea
-below thyroid cartilage
-secretes thyroxin, tertaiodothryonine (T4), triiodothytonine (T3), Calcitonin

4

Parathyroid Gland

-four small oval bodies located on the dorsal aspect of the thyroid gland
-secrete parathyroid hormone

5

Adrenal Cortex

(Adrenal Glands located on top of each kidney)
-outer portion
-secretes steroids, corticosteroids

6

Adrenal Medulla

(Adrenal glands located on top of each kidney)
-inner portion
-secretes catecholamines

7

Pancreas

-near and partly behind the stomach, in region of first and second lumbar vertebrae
-consists of hormone producing cells "islets of langerhans"
-secretes insulin and glucagon

8

Pituitary Gland (hypophysis)
-anterior lobe

-pea sized gland located at base of the brain in small pocket-like depression called sella turcica
-growth hormone (somatotropin)
-Thyroid-Stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)
-Adrenocorticotropic hormone (adrenocorticotropin)
-Gonadotropic hormones (FSH/LH)
-Prolactin

9

Pituitary Gland
-posterior lobe

-pea sized gland located at base of the brain in small pocket-like depression called sella turcica
-Antidiuretic hormone
-Oxytocin

10

Ovaries

-Two small glands located in the lower abdominal region of the female
-estrogen, progesterone

11

Testes

-Two small ovoid glands suspended from the inguinal region of the male
-testosterone

12

Adrenaline (epinephrine)

-secreted by adrenal medulla
-Increases heart rate and blood pressure and dilates airways (sympathomimetic)
-"fight or flight" reaction

13

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Secreted by anterior pituitary
-stimulates adrenal cortex

14

Aldosterone

-secreted by adrenal cortex
-increases salt reabsorption

15

androgen

male hormone secreted by testes
-testosterone

16

Antidiuretic hormone

secreted by posterior pituitary
-increases reabsorption of water by the kidney

17

Calcitonin

Secreted by the thyroid gland
-decreases blood calcium elvels

18

Cortisol

-secreted by adrenal cortex
-increases blood sugar
-secreted in times of stress and has an anti-inflammatory effect

19

estradiol

Secreted by ovaries
-estrogen

20

estrogen

Secreted by ovaries
-estradiol and estrone

21

Follicle-Stimulating hormone (FSH)

Secreted by anterior pituitary
-stimulates hormone secretion and egg production by the ovaries and sperm production by testes

22

Glucagon

secreted by the pancreas (alpha islets)
-increases blood sugar by conversion of glycogen to glucose

23

Growth hormone (somatotropin)

Secreted by anterior pituitary
-stimulates growth of bones and soft tissue

24

Insulin

Secreted by the pancreas (beta islets)
-helps glucose to pass into cells, promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen

25

Luteinizing Hormon

Secreted by anterior pituitary
-stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone secretion in males

26

Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

Secreted by adrenal medulla
-increases heart rate and blood pressure (sympathomimetic)

27

Oxytocin

Secreted by posterior pituitary
-stimulates contraction of the uterus during labor and childbirth

28

Parathormone

Secreted by parathyroid
-increases blood calcium

29

Progesterone

Secreted by ovaries
-prepares uterus for pregnancy

30

-prolactin

secreted by anterior pituitary
-promotes milk secretion

31

Somatotropin

Secreted by anterior pituitary
-growth hormone

32

Testosterone

male hormone secreted by testes

33

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)

Secreted by anterior pituitary
-acts on thyroid gland to promote its functioning

34

thryoxine (T4, tetraiodothyronine)

Secreted by thyroid gland
-increases metabolism in cells

35

triiodothyronine (T3)

Secreted by thyroid gland
-increases metabolism in cells

36

Vasopressin (ADH)

Secreted by posterior pituitary
-increases water reabsorption and raises blood pressure

37

Catecholamines

Secreted by adrenal medulla
-hormones derived from an amino acid

38

Corticosteroids

Produced by adrenal cortex
-cortisol (raises sugar levels)
-Aldosterone (raises salt reabsorption by kidneys)
-androgens and estrogens (sex hormones)

39

Electrolyte

Mineral salt found in the blood and tissues and necessary for proper functioning of cells
-potassium, sodium, calcium

40

Glucocorticoid

Secreted by adrenal cortex
-regulates glucose, fat, protein metabolism

41

Homeostasis

Tendency of an organism to maintain a constant internal environment

42

Hormone

substance secreted by an endocrine gland that travels through the good to a distant organ or gland where it influences the structure or function of that organ or gland

43

hypothalamus

Region of the brain lying slow the thalamus and above the pituitary gland
-secrets real easing factors and hormones that affect the pituitary gland

44

Mineralocorticoid

Secreted by adrenal cortex
-regulates mineral salts (electrolytes) and water balance in the body
-Aldosterone

45

Receptor

cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone so that a response can be elicited

46

Sella turcica

Cavity in the skull that contains the pituitary gland

47

Sex hormones

Steroids produced by the adrenal cortex to influence male and female sex characteristics

48

Steroid

complex substance related to fats, and of which many hormones are made.

49

Sympathomimetic

Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system.

50

Target tissue

cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones