Chapter 16 Pathologies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Pathologies Deck (48):
1

Crust

Collection of dried serum and cellular debris
-scab

2

cyst

Thick-walled, closed sac or push containing fluid or semisolid material

3

Erosion

Wearing away or loss of epidermis

4

Fissure

Groove or crack like sore

5

Macule

Flat lesion measuring less than 1cm in diameter
-freckles, tattoo marks, flat moles

6

Nodule

Solid, round or oval elevated lesion 1cm or more in diameter
-enlarged lymph node, solid growth

7

Papule

Small (<1cm) solid elevation of the skin
-pimple

8

Polyp

Growth extending from the surface of mucous membrane

9

Pustule

Papule containing pus
-small abscess

10

Ulcer

Open sore on the skin or mucous membranes (deeper than an erosion)
-Decubitus ulcers are bedsores

11

Vesicle

Small collection of clear fluid
-blister

12

Wheal

Smooth, edematous (swollen) papule or plaque that is redder or paler than the surrounding skin
-seen in hives
-often accompanied by itching

13

Alopecia

Absence of hair from areas where it normally grows

14

Ecchymosis, ecchymoses

Bluish-purplish mark on the skin
-bruise

15

Petechia, petechiae

Small, pinpoint hemorrhages

16

Pruritus

Itching

17

Acne

Chronic papular and pustular eruption of the skin with increased production of sebum

18

Burns

injury to tissues caused by heat contact
-1st degree
-superficial epidermal lesions, erythema, hyperesthesia, no blister
-2nd degree
-Epidermal and dermal lesions, erythema, blisters, and hyperesthesia
-3rd degree
-Epidermis and dermis are destroyed, and subcutaneous layer is damaged, leaving charred, white tissue

19

Cellulitis

Diffuse acute infection of the skin marked by local heat, redness, pain, and swelling

20

Eczema

Inflammatory skin disease with erythematous papulovesicular, or papalosquamous lesions

21

Exanthematous viral diseases

Rash of the skin due to a coral infection

22

Gangrene

Death of tissue associated with loss of blood supply

23

Impetigo

Bacterial inflammatory skin disease characterized by vesicles, pustules, and crusted-over lesions

24

Psoriasis

Chronic, recurrent dermatosis marked by itchy, scaly, red plaques covered by silvery gray scales

25

Scabies

Contagious, parasitic infection of the skin with intense pruritus

26

Sleroderma

Chronic progressive disease of the skin and internal organs with hardening and shrinking of connective tissue

27

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of collagen in skin, joints, and internal organs

28

tinea

infection of the skin caused by a fungus

29

Urticaria (Hives)

Acute allergic reaction in which red, round wheals develop on the skin

30

vitiligo

Loss of pigment in areas of the skin

31

Callus

Increased growth of cells in the keratin layer of the epidermis caused by pressure or friction

32

Keloid

Excess hypertrophied thickened scar developing after trauma or surgical incision

33

Keratosis

Thickened and rough lesion of the epidermis; associated with aging or skin damage

34

Leukoplakia

White thickened patches on mucous membrane tissue of the tongue or cheek (evolves to squamous cell carcinoma)

35

Nevus, nevi

Pigmented lesion of the skin

36

Verruca, Verrucae

Epidermal growth (wart) caused by a virus

37

Basal cell carcinoma

Malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis

38

Squamous cell carcinoma

Malignant tumor of the squamous epithelial cells in the epidermis

39

Malignant melanoma

Cancerous growth composed of melanocytes

40

Kaposi sarcoma

Malignant, vascular, neoplastic growth characterized by cutaneous nodules

41

Bacterial analyses

Samples of skin are examined for presence of microorganisms

42

Fungal tests

Scrapings from skin lesions, hair specimens, or nail clippings are sent to a laboratory for culture and microscopic examination

43

Crysorugery

use of subfreezing temperature achieved with liquid nitrogen application to destroy tissue

44

Curettage

use of a hear dermal curette to scrape away a skin lesion

45

Electrodesiccation

Tissue is destroyed by burning with an electric spark

46

Mohs surgery

Thin layers of malignant tissue are removed, and each slice is examined under a microscope to check for adequate extent of the resection

47

Skin biopsy

suspected malignant skin lesions are removed and examined microscopically by a pathologist

48

Skin test

Substances are injected intradermally or applied to the skin, and results are observed