Chapter 16 Innate Immunity : Nonspecific Defense of the Host Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Innate Immunity : Nonspecific Defense of the Host Deck (30):
1

Innate Immunity

Defense against Any pathogen

-Present at birth

-Provide rapid response against disease

2

First line of Defense

-Intact skin
-Mucous membranes & secretions
-Normal Microbiota

3

Intact skin

-Epidermis tightly packed cells with keratin
-Keratin ( protective protein)
-Shedding, low moisture

4

Mucous Membranes

-Traps Microbes
- Ciliary escalator (trapped in mucous)
- transports away from lungs (lung cookies)

5

High salt content of sweat

all examples of ?

Chemical factors

6

Oil secretion from skin that is antifungal ?

Sebum
-Chemical factor

7

Which chemical factor digests peptidoglycan in perspiration, tears and saliva ?

Lysozyme

Chemical factor
-In Perspiration (tears, saliva, urine)
-Digest Peptidoglycan

8

May be opportunistic pathogen HARMLESS UNLESS CONDITION CHANGES ?

Commensal Microbiota

-One organism (microbe) benefits and host unharmed

9

List of Leukocytes from Most to Least

Hint: Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas

Neutrophils,
lymphocytes,
Monocytes ,
Eosinophils ,
Basophils

10

Neutrophil

-Most common WBC

-Phagocytic (ingest harmful stuff)

-Can leave body and enter infected tissue

11

HIV kills T cells causing ________ ?

Leukopenia
- Decrease in Leukocytes in response to infection

-Ex: brucellosis , salmonellosis , some viral infections

12

Chemotaxis

- Chemical attraction of phagocyte to pathogen

13

Adherence

-TLRs (toll-like receptor) , (bind to pathogen PAMPS)

-Activation of TLR's induce cytokines (regulate intensity and duration of immune response)

14

4 S/s of inflammation?

calor ( heat)

Dolor (Pain)

rubor ( redness )

tumor ( swelling

15

Pathogens have _____ ( iron scavengers)

Siderophores
(Competition for Iron)

16

Complement system destroys microbes by

1 ________ Enhances visibility of immune system
2 ________ increase blood flow to area
3_________ cell burst

Opsonization , inflammation,
cytolysis

17

The antimicrobial effects of AMPs include all of the following EXCEPT

pore formation in bacterial membranes.
lysis of bacterial cells.
inhibition of cell wall synthesis.
destruction of nucleic acids.
inhibition of phagocytosis.

inhibition of phagocytosis.

18

All of the following pertain to fever EXCEPT that it

can be initiated by specific types of pathogens.
stimulates T lymphocyte activity.
intensifies the effect of antiviral interferons.
is caused by interleukin-1 and TNF-alpha coming into contact with the hypothalamus.
accelerates microbial growth by increasing iron absorption from the digestive tract.

accelerates microbial growth by increasing iron absorption from the digestive tract.

19

Emigration is

the migration of phagocytes through blood vessels to the site of tissue damage.

20

The absence of C5 means that the molecule is not present to be activated. What happens in normal serum when C5 is “activated”?

C3b is a part of enzyme that splits C5 into two fragments, C5a and C5b.

21

Because C5 is absent in their sera, which of the protective effects of complement activation does not occur in response to infection with Neisseria meningitidis?

lysis of infecting microbes

22

Fragment C5b initiates the binding of the terminal complement proteins that form the membrane-attack complex (MAC). Which of these proteins associates with the MAC?

C7

23

Suppose that someone has a C3 deficiency rather than a C5 deficiency. What would be one consequence for innate immunity to microbes if these siblings lack C3 in their blood?

Phagocytes could not attach as easily to invading microbes.

(C3b is an important opsonin.)

24

What Types of Cells Are Phagocytes?

macrophage
eosinophil
neutrophil
dendritic cell

25

Interfere with chemotaxis.

-absence of cytokine and complement receptors on phagocyte surfaces
-defective microfilament function

26

Enhances phagocytosis

-antibody molecules attaching to microbe surface
-complement peptides deposited on microbe surface

27

Interferes with phagocytosis

-deposition of host-derived fibrin on microbe surface
-M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes
-microbial capsules

28

List that would enable a microbe to evade phagocytosis or avoid phagocytic killing.

-Microbe prevents fusion of phagosome with lysosome to form phagolysosome.
-Microbe produces leukocidin.
-A capsule surrounds the microbe.
-Microbe escapes from phagosome prior to fusion with lysosome.

29

Which group contains ONLY innate physical defenses?
A. lysozymes, stomach pH, sweat
B. intact skin, tears, ciliary escalator
C. mucus, sebum, saliva
D. B lymphocytes, blood, macrophages

B. intact skin, tears, ciliary escalator

30

Which non-specific defense mechanism is mismatched with its associated body structure or body fluid?

mucociliary escalator intestines