Chapter 24 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 24 Deck (45):
1

Which of the following requires treatment with both antibiotics and antitoxins?

diphtheria

2

An effective vaccine does NOT exist for the common cold, because __________.

Most are caused by viruses.

3

A physician receives a lab report indicating that acid-fast bacilli were found in sputum from a patient with a lower respiratory tract infection. The physician suspects __________

tuberculosis

4

An outbreak of pneumonia occurs in a wing of a hospital housing kidney-transplant patients. The source of infection is traced to the water supply of the air conditioner. This case describes transmission of which of the following?

Legionella pneumophila

5

pertussis is characterized by

a whooping type cough

6

Coccidioides immitis causes Valley fever, a disease that is endemic to the Mississippi Valley.

False

7

Which of the following is an opportunistic pathogen?

Pneumocystis

8

Legionella is transmitted by

airborne transmission.

9

Soil is a reservoir for all of the following EXCEPT
melioidosis.
histoplasmosis.
coccidioidomycosis.
blastomycosis.
Q fever.

Q fever.

10

All of the following are used as first-line drugs for treating tuberculosis EXCEPT
pyrazinamide.
ethambutol.
rifampin.
isoniazid.
fluoroquinolones.

fluoroquinolones.

11

Which of the following is mismatched?
epiglottitis - Haemophilus
psittacosis - Chlamydia
whooping cough - Bordetella
melioidosis - Burkholderia
Q fever - Rickettsia

Q fever - Rickettsia

12

Which of the following is mismatched?

Haemophilus - gram-negative rod
Bordetella - gram-negative pleomorphic rod
Mycobacterium - acid-fast rod
Corynebacterium - gram-positive rod
Mycoplasma - gram-positive pleomorphic rod

Mycoplasma - gram-positive pleomorphic rod

13

Which of the following is mismatched?

psittacosis Chlamydia
epiglottitis Haemophilus
melioidosis Burkholderia
Q fever Rickettsia
whooping cough Bordetella

Q fever Rickettsia

14

Which of the following is mismatched?

pharyngitis sore throat
sinusitis headache and nasal mucous
laryngitis voice loss
otitis media
epiglottitis sore throat

epiglotitis sore throat

15

Which of the following is mismatched?

Mycoplasma walking pneumonia
Chlamydophila psittacosis
Burkholderia melioidosis
Coxiella Q fever
Mycobacterium whooping cough

Mycobacterium whooping cough

16

Which of the following diseases is NOT correctly matched to its reservoir?

tuberculosis - cattle
histoplasmosis - soil
pneumocystis - humans
psittacosis - parakeets
coccidioidomycosis - air

coccidioidomycosis - air

17

It is common for a normal, healthy individual to carry potentially pathogenic organisms in their upper respiratory tract.

True

18

Which of the following could be true of tuberculosis of the kidney?

The disease could be subsequent to a normal primary infection.
The disease could be subsequent to a reactivated latent infection.
The patient would likely be infected with MDR TB or XDR TB.
The patient would likely have a positive skin test.

All of the above could be true

19

A positive tuberculosis skin test indicates that the patient has active tuberculosis.

False

20

Human-to-human transmission of plague is usually by:
A) dog flea.
B) the respiratory route.
C) wounds.
D) rat flea.
E) unsanitary conditions.
.

B) the respiratory route

21

Which of the following statements regarding tuberculosis is FALSE?
A) Nearly 1/3 of the worlds population shows symptoms of tuberculosis.
B) Treatment requires at least six months of antibiotic therapy.
C) At least 1/3 of those who are TB-positive are also HIV-positive.
D) Nearly 1/3 of the worlds population is infected with tuberculosis.
E) It is responsible for nearly 2 million deaths per year.

A) Nearly 1/3 of the worlds population shows symptoms of tuberculosis.

22

Vaccination with the influenza vaccine confers lifelong immunity to influenza virus.

False

23

An individual presents with a pinkish-red rash and a red sore throat. Gram-positive cocci are cultured from a throat swab. The cocci are growing in chains. Which of the following is the most likely conclusion?
An individual presents with a pinkish-red rash and a red sore throat. Gram-positive cocci are cultured from a throat swab. The cocci are growing in chains. Which of the following is the most likely conclusion?

The patient has scarlet fever.
The patient has epiglottitis.
The patient has diphtheria.
The patient has otitis media.

Scarlet fever is produced by the erythrogenic toxin produced by Streptococcus pyogenes.

24

Which of the following diseases is NOT correctly matched to its vaccine?
influenza viruses grown in embryonated eggs
pneumococcal pneumonia capsular polysaccharides
whooping cough heat-killed bacteria
diphtheria toxoid
tuberculosis toxoid

tuberculosis toxoid

25

All of the following can lead to a positive tuberculin skin test EXCEPT
vaccination.
previous tuberculosis infection.
current tuberculosis infection.
immunity to tuberculosis
being near someone with tuberculosis.

being near someone with tuberculosis.

26

Which of the following is NOT an intracellular parasite?

Coxiella
RSV
Chlamydophila
Influenzavirus
Coccidioides

Coccidioides

27

Mycoplasmal pneumonia differs from viral pneumonia in that
A) It doesnʹt have any known etiologic agent.
B) It is treated with tetracyclines.
C) Viral pneumonia is treated with tetracyclines.
D) The symptoms are distinctly different.
E) None of the above.
B) It is treated with tetracyclines.

B) It is treated with tetracyclines.

28

Which of the following diseases is not correctly matched to its vaccine?
A) Tuberculosis toxoid
B) Whooping cough heat-killed bacteria
C) Diphtheria toxoid
D) Influenza viruses grown in embryonated eggs
E) None of the above

A) Tuberculosis toxoid

29

Which of the following diseases is not correctly matched to its reservoir?
A) Tuberculosis cattle
B) Histoplasmosis soil
C) Psittacosis parakeets
D) Coccidioidomycosis air
E) Pneumocystis humans

D) Coccidioidomycosis air

30

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
A) Q fever ticks
B) Psittacosis parrots
C) Pneumocystis pneumonia nosocomial
D) Coccidioides soil
E) None of the above

E) None of the above

31

It is common for a normal, healthy individual to carry potentially pathogenic organisms in their upper respiratory tract.

True

32

A patient has fever, difficulty breathing, chest pains, fluid in the alveoli, and a positive tuberculin skin test. Gram-positive cocci are isolated from the sputum. The patient most likely has
A) Tuberculosis.
B) Influenza.
C) Pneumococcal pneumonia.
D) Mycoplasmal pneumonia.
E) Common cold.

C) Pneumococcal pneumonia

33

Three main stages of whooping cough by order of how they would occur during progression of the infection.

1. Catarrhal refers to the initial stage of whooping cough that closely resembles a common cold. This may lead to misdiagnosis or delay in treatment.
2. Paroxysmal refers to the second stage of disease progression when the patient, usually a child, suffers prolonged sieges of coughing. This excessive coughing is a result of the body trying to clear the mucus that has accumulated after the cilia were destroyed in the trachea.
3. The final stage of whooping cough is the convalescence stage and can last several months.

34

What are some of the current challenges to production of the influenza vaccine?
Select all that apply.

A.The production of vaccine is a lengthy process.
B. In order to yield a vaccine, the virus must be produced in eggs.
C. Production is difficult because the vaccine is composed of all important strains identified during the previous flu season.
D. The virus undergoes antigenic changes on a regular basis.
E. The vaccine does not stimulate a strong antibody response because it is an intracellular pathogen

B. In order to yield a vaccine, the virus must be produced in eggs.
D. The virus undergoes antigenic changes on a regular basis.

A vaccine for influenza has been available since about 1945. The current vaccine generates protection against the three strains most likely to cause infection during the flu season. The vaccine is currently available in two forms: a nasal spray (made from live, attenuated virus) and an injection (made from inactivated virus). Although both offer protection, the effect is relatively short-lived and is specific only for the three strains contained in the vaccine.

35

____________ are the most common type of infection

Infections of the upper respiratory system

36

Microbes in the lungs can be phagocytized by

alveolar macrophages

37

_____ can cause epiglottitis

H. influenza type b

38

Symptoms of Scarlet Fever include:

red rash
high fever
red, enlarged tongue

39

True or False
With Diptheria A membrane, containing fibrin and dead human and bacterial cells, forms in the throat and can block the passage of air.

True

40

Routine immunization in the United States includes diphtheria toxoid in the ___________

DTaP vaccine

41

Slow-healing skin ulcerations are characteristic of _____.

cutaneous diphtheria

42

The initial stage of pertussis resembles a cold and is called the _____________

catarrhal stage

43

True or false
Regular immunization for children has decreased the incidence of pertussis

True

44

Tuberculosis is caused by

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

45

M. tuberculosis may be ingested by _____

alveolar macrophages