Flashcards in chapter 17 Deck (143):
Which system communicates by electrical impulses and transmitters?
Which system communicates by hormones?
Which system releases hormones into the bloodstream and can go all over the body?
Which system releases neurotransmitters at target cells?
Which system reacts quickly within 1 to 10 ms?
The nervous system
Which system has local specific effects?
Which system has general widespread effects
Which system reacts more slowly could take seconds to days because of so many places to go?
Which system stops quickly when the stimulus stops?
Which system continues responding longer even after the stimulus stops it start slowly stop slowly?
what is a chemical messenger it stimulates the physiology of cells in another tissue or organ?
What makes a tissue or organ change what they're doing?
What are the three classes of hormones?
Which type of hormone is derived from the cholesterol molecule?
What hormone is hydrophobic which means it won't dissolve in water so it must bind to transport proteins in plasma?
Which hormones are large and are called proteins and have chains of 3-200+ amino acids?
Which hormone is hydrophilic which means it likes water so it can mix with blood plasma and travel in blood?
What means one amino acid?
This hormone is also hydrophilic and is made from amino acids tryptophan or tyrosine. Most are the same as peptide hormones.
A thyroid hormone is what type of hormone?
What is the mode of action of a hormone?
Alteration of cell activity.
Hormones only stimulate cells that have receptors for them.
What do receptors do?
They act like switches to turn certain metabolic pathways on or off when the hormone binds to them.
What is specificity?
It means being picky. The receptor for one hormone will not bind other hormones
What is saturation?
All of the receptor molecules are occupied by hormones
Which hormones diffuse through the plasma membrane and entered the nucleus?
Which hormones bind to receptors associated with DNA?
What hormone cannot penetrate into a target cell?
A hormone that binds to cell surface receptor which then activates the G protein and the G protein migrates to effector enzyme And activates it which generates the second messenger?
The second messenger then activates other enzymes which catalyze or inhibit metabolic reactions
Cyclic AMP, DAG, IP3 act as second messengers
What is amplification?
When one hormone can trigger the synthesis of many enzymes
When the target cell increases the number of recepters and becomes more sensitive to the hormone, this type of modulation of target cell sensitivity is called?
When the cell reduces its receptors and becomes less sensitive to the hormone this is called?
There are three types of hormone interactions, what are they?
Which effect is when one hormone enhances the target organs response to a second hormone?
When two or more hormones act together to produce an effect that is greater than the sum of their separate effects, this is called?
When one hormone opposes the action of another to gain control this is called?
The Release of hormones in response to signals from the nervous system in the control of hormone secretion is called what?
Another type of control of hormone secretion is feedback from target organs. What are the two types of feedback?
Negative feedback inhibition
When the pituitary hormone stimulates another endocrine glands to secrete it's hormone, and the hormone feeds back to the pituitary this one type of?
Negative feedback inhibition
When for example the hypothalamus secretes TRH to the pituitary which secretes TSH to the thyroid then secretes TH to the pituitary and inhibits the TSH. This is another type of?
Negative feedback inhibition
When a hormone is secreted and feedback from the target cells stimulate increased hormone secretion, this is called?
Another type of control of hormone secretion is in?
Blood molecule concentrations
Another way to control hormone secretion is when unused hormones are taken up by the liver and kidneys and excreted. This is called?
Stress and adaptation of hormones
Any situation that upsets homeostasis and threatens one's physical or emotional well-being is called?
What happens in response to stress?
It involves elevated levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine from adrenal glands and cortisol also released from the adrenal glands just a different spot.
What are the three stages of stress for hormone?
When norepinephrine from the SNS and epinephrine from the adrenal medulla prepare for fight or flight, body consumes stored glycogen during this stage?
When glycogen is gone, the body uses cortisol to provide an alternative fuel ( fat and protein). This stage is called?
When fat reserves are gone, protein meets energy needs. This stage is called?
Where is the location of the hypothalamus?
It forms the floor and walls of the third ventricle of the brain.
What are the releasing hormones of the hypothalamus?
What is the target tissue of the releasing hormones?
Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary)
What do the releasing hormones do?
They stimulate the pituitary to secrete hormones
What are inhibiting hormones?
They are part of negative feedback loops
What are the inhibiting hormones?
Prolactin inhibiting hormone
Growth hormone inhibiting hormone
What is the target tissue of the inhibiting hormones?
What do the inhibiting hormones do?
They suppress pituitary secretion of hormones
Where is the anterior lobe pituitary gland located?
In the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone (middle of brain)
How many hormones does the anterior lobe of the Pituitary gland secrete And what are their names?
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Lutenizing hormone ( LH)
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Growth hormone (GH)
What are the target tissues of FSH?
Ovaries and testes
What does FSH stimulate in the female?
Growth of follicle and secretion of estrogen
What does FSH stimulate in males?
Stimulate sperm production
What does Luten mean?
What are the target tissues of the luteinizing hormone?
The ovaries and testes
What does the luteinizing hormone stimulate in the females?
Ovulation and secretion of progesterone
What does the lutenizing hormone stimulate in the male?
Secretion of testosterone
What is the target tissue of the thyroid stimulating hormone?
The thyroid gland
What does the thyroid stimulating hormone stimulate?
Growth of thyroid and secretion of TH
What is the target tissue of the adrenocorticotropic hormone?
The adrenal gland cortex
What does the adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulate?
The adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids (controls sugar)
What is the target tissues of prolactin?
Mammary glands and testes
What does prolactin stimulate in females?
Stimulates milk synthesis but doesn't release milk
What does prolactin stimulate in males?
Stimulates increased LH sensitivity
What are the growth hormones target tissues?
The target tissues are widespread especially liver, bone, cartilage, muscle and fat
The growth hormone causes widespread tissue growth through two ways, what are they?
When the growth hormone causes hypersecretion you can get two types of disorders.
One is excess growth in children, which is known as?
Another is thickening of bones and soft tissue in adults, This is known as?
The growth hormone can also cause hyposecretion.
This can cause reduced growth, known as?
The posterior lobe pituitary gland (neurohypophysis) secretes two hormones, what are they?
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Hormones are produced by cell bodies in the hypothalamus and stored where in the pituitary gland?
Where is the target tissue of the antidiuretic hormone?
Kidneys, they tell the kidneys to keep water and put it back into the bloodstream
What does the antidiuretic hormone stimulate?
Water retension which reduces urine volume
What is diabetes insipidus?
It is because of hyposecretion, it is chronic polyuria without glucose in urine. If we don't have ADH, we get polyuria.
What is the target tissue of Oxytocin?
The uterus and Mammary glands
What does oxytocin stimulate?
Labor contractions and milk release
What is the location of the pineal gland?
It is attached to the roof of the third ventricle of the brain
What hormones does the pineal gland secrete?
The pineal gland secretes melatonin from serotonin
What is the target tissue of the melatonin?
What does the melatonin do?
It may influence mood and sexual maturation
Where is the thymus located?
Mediastinum ( middle of chest), Superior to the heart
What hormones does the thymus stimulate or secrete?
What are the target tissues of thymosin, thympopoietin, and thymulin?
What do these hormones stimulate?
T lymphocytes development and activity. T cells protect from viruses and cancers.
What is the location of the thyroid gland?
It is adjacent to the trachea below larynx.
What hormones does the thyroid gland stimulate or secrete?
What is the target tissues of T4 and T3?
What does T4 and T3 stimulate?
An increase in the bodies metabolic rate
Hypersecretion of T4 into T3 can cause what?
Toxic goiter (enlarged thyroid gland), called Graves' disease, where antibodies mimic TSH
You can have increased metabolic rate, heart rate, temperature, nervousness, loss of sleep, loss of weight, and bulging eyes.
Hyposecretion of T4 and T3 can cause what?
Congenital hypothyroidism, which causes lethargy, brain damage etc. in
Endemic goiter- iodine deficiency, gland cannot synthesize TH
(Endemic is because of area you live in)
What is the target tissue of calcitonin?
What does Calcitonin stimulate?
Bone deposition to decrease blood calcium levels
What is the location of the parathyroid gland?
It is embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid
What hormone does the parathyroid gland secrete?
The parathyroid hormone (PTH)
What are the target tissues of the parathyroid hormone?
Bones, kidneys, small intestine
What does the parathyroid hormone do?
It raises blood calcium levels by stimulating bone resorption and reducing urinary calcium excretion
What is hyperparathyroidism?
Soft, deformed, fragile bones and renal calculi
What is hypoparathyroidism?
Fetal tetany in three or four days
What is the location of the adrenal medulla?
Superior to kidney
What hormones does the Adrenal Medulla secrete?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
What are the target tissues of epinephrine and norepinephrine?
What does epinephrine and norepinephrine stimulate?
Increased alertness and prepares the body for physical activity
What is pheochromocytoma or ( hypersecretion of Epinephrine and norepinephrine)?
Increased blood pressure, metabolic rate, blood glucose, nervousness and indigestion
What is the location of the adrenal cortex?
It is superior to the kidney
What three hormones does the adrenal cortex secrete?
Androgen (mainly DHEA)
What is the target tissue of aldosterone?
What does aldosterone stimulates?
Sodium and water retention and potassium excretion, to maintain blood pressure and blood volume
What happens with hyposecretion of aldosterone?
Addison's disease, which is hypoglycemia, iron and water imbalance, weight-loss, hypotension, dehydration
What is cortisol's target tissues?
What does cortisol stimulates?
It stimulates fat and protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, stress resistance, tissue repair
What happens with hypersecretion cortisol?
Cushing's syndrome, hyperglycemia, muscle weakness, hypertension, edema, fat deposits in face or between shoulders.
What happens in hyposecretion of cortisol?
Addison's disease, hypoglycemia, ion and water imbalance, weight-loss, hypotension, dehydration
What is androgens target tissues?
Bones, muscles, Integument, brain
Androgen stimulates what?
Growth of bone, pubic hair, axillary hair, apocrine sweat glands, fetal male reproductive tract and sex drive
What does hypersecretion of androgen cause?
Adrenogenital syndrome (AGS) - Enlarged penis or clitoris in newborns
Adult female- Increased body hair
Hormones coming clusters of cells called the pancreatic islet this is called?
Where is the pancreas located?
It is located below and behind the stomach
How many hormones does the pancreas secrete and what are their names?
What is the target tissue of glucagon?
What does glucagon do?
It raises blood glucose levels in amino acid absorption
What are insulins target tissues?
What does insulin stimulate?
It stimulates glucose and amino acid uptake, lowers blood glucose levels, promote synthesis of glycogen, fat, and protein
What does hyperinsulinism cause?
Hypoglycemia, weakness, hunger, shock
What does hyposecretion of insulin cause?
Diabetes mellitus - Hyperglycemia, glycosuria, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and ketonuria
What Are somatostatin's target tissues?
The stomach, intestines and pancreas
What does somatostatin do?
Modulates digestion and nutrient absorption
Where are the ovaries located?
In the pelvic cavity
How many hormones does the ovaries produce and what are they called?
Estradiol and progesterone
What are the target tissues of estradiol?
What does estradiol stimulates?
It stimulates female reproductive development and adolescent growth, regulates menstrual cycle and pregnancy, prepares mammary glands for lactation
What are the target tissues of progesterone?
The uterus and mammary glands
What is progesterone do?
It regulates menstrual cycle and pregnancy, prepares mammary glands for lactation
What is the location of the testes?
Outside the pelvic cavity
What is the hormone secreted from the testes?
What is the target tissue of testosterone?