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Flashcards in chapter 17 Deck (143):
0

Which system communicates by electrical impulses and transmitters?

Nervous system

1

Which system communicates by hormones?

Endocrine system

2

Which system releases hormones into the bloodstream and can go all over the body?

Endocrine system

3

Which system releases neurotransmitters at target cells?

.

4

Which system reacts quickly within 1 to 10 ms?

The nervous system

5

Which system has local specific effects?

Nervous system

6

Which system has general widespread effects

Endocrine system

7

Which system reacts more slowly could take seconds to days because of so many places to go?

Endocrine system

8

Which system stops quickly when the stimulus stops?

Nervous system

9

Which system continues responding longer even after the stimulus stops it start slowly stop slowly?

Endocrine system

10

what is a chemical messenger it stimulates the physiology of cells in another tissue or organ?

Hormone

11

What makes a tissue or organ change what they're doing?

A hormone

12

What are the three classes of hormones?

Steroid hormones
peptide hormones
monoamine's

13

Which type of hormone is derived from the cholesterol molecule?

Steroid hormones

14

What hormone is hydrophobic which means it won't dissolve in water so it must bind to transport proteins in plasma?

Steroid hormone

15

Which hormones are large and are called proteins and have chains of 3-200+ amino acids?

Peptide hormones

16

Which hormone is hydrophilic which means it likes water so it can mix with blood plasma and travel in blood?

Peptide hormone

17

What means one amino acid?

Monoamine

18

This hormone is also hydrophilic and is made from amino acids tryptophan or tyrosine. Most are the same as peptide hormones.

Monamine

19

A thyroid hormone is what type of hormone?

monoamine

20

What is the mode of action of a hormone?

Alteration of cell activity.
Hormones only stimulate cells that have receptors for them.

21

What do receptors do?

They act like switches to turn certain metabolic pathways on or off when the hormone binds to them.

22

What is specificity?

It means being picky. The receptor for one hormone will not bind other hormones

23

What is saturation?

All of the receptor molecules are occupied by hormones

24

Which hormones diffuse through the plasma membrane and entered the nucleus?

Steroid hormones

25

Which hormones bind to receptors associated with DNA?

Steroid hormones

26

What hormone cannot penetrate into a target cell?

Peptide hormones

27

A hormone that binds to cell surface receptor which then activates the G protein and the G protein migrates to effector enzyme And activates it which generates the second messenger?

The second messenger then activates other enzymes which catalyze or inhibit metabolic reactions

Cyclic AMP, DAG, IP3 act as second messengers

Peptide hormones

28

What is amplification?

When one hormone can trigger the synthesis of many enzymes

29

When the target cell increases the number of recepters and becomes more sensitive to the hormone, this type of modulation of target cell sensitivity is called?

Up-regulation

30

When the cell reduces its receptors and becomes less sensitive to the hormone this is called?

Down regulation

31

There are three types of hormone interactions, what are they?

Synergist effect
Permissive effect
Antagonistic effect

32

Which effect is when one hormone enhances the target organs response to a second hormone?

Permissive effect

33

When two or more hormones act together to produce an effect that is greater than the sum of their separate effects, this is called?

Synergistic effect

34

When one hormone opposes the action of another to gain control this is called?

Antagonistic effect

35

The Release of hormones in response to signals from the nervous system in the control of hormone secretion is called what?

Neuroendocrine reflexes

36

Another type of control of hormone secretion is feedback from target organs. What are the two types of feedback?

Negative feedback inhibition
Positive feedback

37

When the pituitary hormone stimulates another endocrine glands to secrete it's hormone, and the hormone feeds back to the pituitary this one type of?

Negative feedback inhibition

38

When for example the hypothalamus secretes TRH to the pituitary which secretes TSH to the thyroid then secretes TH to the pituitary and inhibits the TSH. This is another type of?

Negative feedback inhibition

39

When a hormone is secreted and feedback from the target cells stimulate increased hormone secretion, this is called?

Positive feedback

40

Another type of control of hormone secretion is in?

Blood molecule concentrations

41

Another way to control hormone secretion is when unused hormones are taken up by the liver and kidneys and excreted. This is called?

Hormone clearance

42

Stress and adaptation of hormones

Any situation that upsets homeostasis and threatens one's physical or emotional well-being is called?

Stress

43

What happens in response to stress?

It involves elevated levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine from adrenal glands and cortisol also released from the adrenal glands just a different spot.

44

What are the three stages of stress for hormone?

Alarm reaction
resistance
Exhaustion

45

When norepinephrine from the SNS and epinephrine from the adrenal medulla prepare for fight or flight, body consumes stored glycogen during this stage?

Alarm reaction

46

When glycogen is gone, the body uses cortisol to provide an alternative fuel ( fat and protein). This stage is called?

Resistance

47

When fat reserves are gone, protein meets energy needs. This stage is called?

Exhaustion

48

Where is the location of the hypothalamus?

It forms the floor and walls of the third ventricle of the brain.

49

What are the releasing hormones of the hypothalamus?

Thyrotropin
Corticotropin
Gonadotropin
Growth hormone

50

What is the target tissue of the releasing hormones?

Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary)

51

What do the releasing hormones do?

They stimulate the pituitary to secrete hormones

52

What are inhibiting hormones?

They are part of negative feedback loops

53

What are the inhibiting hormones?

Prolactin inhibiting hormone
Growth hormone inhibiting hormone

54

What is the target tissue of the inhibiting hormones?

Adenohypophysis

55

What do the inhibiting hormones do?

They suppress pituitary secretion of hormones

56

Where is the anterior lobe pituitary gland located?

In the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone (middle of brain)

57

How many hormones does the anterior lobe of the Pituitary gland secrete And what are their names?

Six
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Lutenizing hormone ( LH)
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Prolactin (PRL)
Growth hormone (GH)

58

What are the target tissues of FSH?

Ovaries and testes

59

What does FSH stimulate in the female?

Growth of follicle and secretion of estrogen

60

What does FSH stimulate in males?

Stimulate sperm production

61

What does Luten mean?

Yellow

62

What are the target tissues of the luteinizing hormone?

The ovaries and testes

63

What does the luteinizing hormone stimulate in the females?

Ovulation and secretion of progesterone

64

What does the lutenizing hormone stimulate in the male?

Secretion of testosterone

65

What is the target tissue of the thyroid stimulating hormone?

The thyroid gland

66

What does the thyroid stimulating hormone stimulate?

Growth of thyroid and secretion of TH

67

What is the target tissue of the adrenocorticotropic hormone?

The adrenal gland cortex

68

What does the adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulate?

The adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids (controls sugar)

69

What is the target tissues of prolactin?

Mammary glands and testes

70

What does prolactin stimulate in females?

Stimulates milk synthesis but doesn't release milk

71

What does prolactin stimulate in males?

Stimulates increased LH sensitivity

72

What are the growth hormones target tissues?

The target tissues are widespread especially liver, bone, cartilage, muscle and fat

73

The growth hormone causes widespread tissue growth through two ways, what are they?

Mitosis
Cellular differentiation

74

When the growth hormone causes hypersecretion you can get two types of disorders.
One is excess growth in children, which is known as?

Another is thickening of bones and soft tissue in adults, This is known as?

Gigantism

Acromegaly

75

The growth hormone can also cause hyposecretion.
This can cause reduced growth, known as?

Pituitary dwarfism

76

The posterior lobe pituitary gland (neurohypophysis) secretes two hormones, what are they?

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Oxytocin (OT)

77

Hormones are produced by cell bodies in the hypothalamus and stored where in the pituitary gland?

Axons

78

Where is the target tissue of the antidiuretic hormone?

Kidneys, they tell the kidneys to keep water and put it back into the bloodstream

79

What does the antidiuretic hormone stimulate?

Water retension which reduces urine volume

80

What is diabetes insipidus?

It is because of hyposecretion, it is chronic polyuria without glucose in urine. If we don't have ADH, we get polyuria.

81

What is the target tissue of Oxytocin?

The uterus and Mammary glands

82

What does oxytocin stimulate?

Labor contractions and milk release

83

What is the location of the pineal gland?

It is attached to the roof of the third ventricle of the brain

84

What hormones does the pineal gland secrete?

The pineal gland secretes melatonin from serotonin

85

What is the target tissue of the melatonin?

The brain

86

What does the melatonin do?

It may influence mood and sexual maturation

87

Where is the thymus located?

Mediastinum ( middle of chest), Superior to the heart

88

What hormones does the thymus stimulate or secrete?

Thymosin
Thymopoietin
Thymulin

89

What are the target tissues of thymosin, thympopoietin, and thymulin?

T lymphocytes

90

What do these hormones stimulate?

T lymphocytes development and activity. T cells protect from viruses and cancers.

91

What is the location of the thyroid gland?

It is adjacent to the trachea below larynx.

92

What hormones does the thyroid gland stimulate or secrete?

Thyroxine (T4)
Triiodothyronine (T3)
Calcitonin

93

What is the target tissues of T4 and T3?

Most cells

94

What does T4 and T3 stimulate?

An increase in the bodies metabolic rate

95

Hypersecretion of T4 into T3 can cause what?

Toxic goiter (enlarged thyroid gland), called Graves' disease, where antibodies mimic TSH

You can have increased metabolic rate, heart rate, temperature, nervousness, loss of sleep, loss of weight, and bulging eyes.

96

Hyposecretion of T4 and T3 can cause what?

Congenital hypothyroidism, which causes lethargy, brain damage etc. in
infants

Endemic goiter- iodine deficiency, gland cannot synthesize TH
(Endemic is because of area you live in)

97

What is the target tissue of calcitonin?

Bones

98

What does Calcitonin stimulate?

Bone deposition to decrease blood calcium levels

99

What is the location of the parathyroid gland?

It is embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid

100

What hormone does the parathyroid gland secrete?

The parathyroid hormone (PTH)

101

What are the target tissues of the parathyroid hormone?

Bones, kidneys, small intestine

102

What does the parathyroid hormone do?




It raises blood calcium levels by stimulating bone resorption and reducing urinary calcium excretion

103

What is hyperparathyroidism?

Soft, deformed, fragile bones and renal calculi

104

What is hypoparathyroidism?

Fetal tetany in three or four days

105

What is the location of the adrenal medulla?

Superior to kidney

106

What hormones does the Adrenal Medulla secrete?

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

107

What are the target tissues of epinephrine and norepinephrine?

Most tissues

108

What does epinephrine and norepinephrine stimulate?

Increased alertness and prepares the body for physical activity

109

What is pheochromocytoma or ( hypersecretion of Epinephrine and norepinephrine)?

Increased blood pressure, metabolic rate, blood glucose, nervousness and indigestion

110

What is the location of the adrenal cortex?

It is superior to the kidney

111

What three hormones does the adrenal cortex secrete?

Aldosterone (mineralocorticoids)
Cortisol (glucocorticoids)
Androgen (mainly DHEA)

112

What is the target tissue of aldosterone?

The kidneys

113

What does aldosterone stimulates?

Sodium and water retention and potassium excretion, to maintain blood pressure and blood volume

114

What happens with hyposecretion of aldosterone?

Addison's disease, which is hypoglycemia, iron and water imbalance, weight-loss, hypotension, dehydration

115

What is cortisol's target tissues?

Most tissues

116

What does cortisol stimulates?

It stimulates fat and protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, stress resistance, tissue repair

117

What happens with hypersecretion cortisol?

Cushing's syndrome, hyperglycemia, muscle weakness, hypertension, edema, fat deposits in face or between shoulders.

118

What happens in hyposecretion of cortisol?

Addison's disease, hypoglycemia, ion and water imbalance, weight-loss, hypotension, dehydration

119

What is androgens target tissues?

Bones, muscles, Integument, brain

120

Androgen stimulates what?

Growth of bone, pubic hair, axillary hair, apocrine sweat glands, fetal male reproductive tract and sex drive

121

What does hypersecretion of androgen cause?

Adrenogenital syndrome (AGS) - Enlarged penis or clitoris in newborns

Adult female- Increased body hair

122

Hormones coming clusters of cells called the pancreatic islet this is called?

The pancreas

123

Where is the pancreas located?

It is located below and behind the stomach

124

How many hormones does the pancreas secrete and what are their names?

Three

Glucagon
Insulin
Somatostatin (GHIH)

125

What is the target tissue of glucagon?

The liver

126

What does glucagon do?

It raises blood glucose levels in amino acid absorption

127

What are insulins target tissues?

Most tissues

128

What does insulin stimulate?

It stimulates glucose and amino acid uptake, lowers blood glucose levels, promote synthesis of glycogen, fat, and protein

129

What does hyperinsulinism cause?

Hypoglycemia, weakness, hunger, shock

130

What does hyposecretion of insulin cause?

Diabetes mellitus - Hyperglycemia, glycosuria, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and ketonuria

131

What Are somatostatin's target tissues?

The stomach, intestines and pancreas

132

What does somatostatin do?

Modulates digestion and nutrient absorption

133

Where are the ovaries located?

In the pelvic cavity

134

How many hormones does the ovaries produce and what are they called?

Two

Estradiol and progesterone

135

What are the target tissues of estradiol?

Many tissues

136

What does estradiol stimulates?

It stimulates female reproductive development and adolescent growth, regulates menstrual cycle and pregnancy, prepares mammary glands for lactation

137

What are the target tissues of progesterone?

The uterus and mammary glands

138

What is progesterone do?

It regulates menstrual cycle and pregnancy, prepares mammary glands for lactation

139

What is the location of the testes?

Outside the pelvic cavity

140

What is the hormone secreted from the testes?

Testosterone

141

What is the target tissue of testosterone?

Many tissues

142

What does testosterone stimulate?

It stimulates fetal and adolescent reproductive development, musculoskeletal growth, sperm production and libido