Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (117):
What does the circulatory system consist of?
Heart, blood vessels, blood
What are four functions of the circulatory system?
1. Transport of O2, CO2, nutrients, waste, hormones and stem cells
2. Protection through inflammation, white blood cells, antibodies and plasma proteins
3. Regulation by fluid distribution, buffering the pH of the extracellular fluid, and body temperature
What is the liquid connective tissue that is composed of plasma and formed elements?
What percent of our body weight is blood?
How much blood is in an adults body?
4 to 6 L
What temperature does blood remain at?
What is the pH range of blood?
7.35 – 7.45
What is the liquid portion of blood called?
Plasma is what percent of the whole blood?
47 to 63%
Plasma is made up of four parts, what are they?
Plasma proteins, which the liver produces most of
What is serum?
It is plasma with fibrinogen absent. Fibrinogen is a protein found in blood that is important for blood clotting
Water makes up what percentage of the plasma?
Plasma proteins make up what percent of plasma?
There are three types of plasma proteins, what are they?
Albumin contributes to what?
Albumin transports what?
Albumin buffers what?
Viscosity and colloid osmotic pressure
Lipids, calcium, hormones, etc.
Globulins are broken down into three types what are they?
Alpha, Beta and Gamma
What does the Alpha globulins do?
Transport solutes, promotes blood clotting
What does the beta globulins do?
Transport solutes, aids in defense
What does gamma globulins do?
Antibodies which combat pathogens
What does fibrinogen do?
Becomes a component of blood clots
The fourth part of plasma is other solutes, what does that include?
Nitrogenous wastes, electrolytes, nutrients
The production of blood is called?
During embryonic development, stem cells from the yolk sac Migrate to where?
What happens next?
The bone marrow, liver, spleen, and thymus
The stem cells multiply and give rise to blood cells
From infancy onward red bone marrow produces what?
What are also produced in the lymphatic tissues and organs?
What do hemopoietic stem cells have the potential to develop into?
Multiple mature cell types
Specialized cells that produce one class of form elements are called?
Colony – forming units
What is another name for red blood cells or RBCs?
Erythrocytes make up what percentage of total blood volume?
37 - 52%
What are the two functions of red blood cells?
1. To pick up oxygen from the lungs and deliver it to the tissues
2. To pick up carbon dioxide from the tissues and unload it into the lungs
What shape are red blood cells?
Discoid or round with a thick rim and sunken center
What are red blood cells diameter?
Do red blood cells organelles?
What determines blood type?
The glycolipids on the surface
What do spectrin and actin allow the cell to do?
Stretch, bend and bold
Red blood cells contain hemoglobin which do what?
Transports oxygen and CO2
What does hemoglobin do?
It's Red pigment gives red blood cells their color
Each red blood cell contains how many hemoglobin?
What does each hemoglobin consists of?
For protein chains conjugated with four heme groups
What does each him group do?
It binds one oxygen to an iron at it's center
What percent of carbon dioxide is transported down to the globin of hemoglobin?
What are three of the most common measurements taken?
Hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and red blood cell count
Why are the quantities of erythrocytes and hemoglobin important?
Because they determine the amount of oxygen the blood can carry
What is hematocrit?
It is the Percent of red blood cells in whole blood, Which is 37 to 52%
What is the hemoglobin concentration of whole blood?
12 to 18 g/dL
What is the red blood cell count range?
(4.2-6.2 million RBCs/uL of blood)
In erythrocyte Homeostasis the kidneys detect hypoxemia and do what?
They increase erythropoietin output
In erythrocyte death and disposal, Red blood cells circulate for how many days?
Expired red blood cells break up in the _______ and ________ and ________ is released
Hemoglobin is degraded ________ and is separated from ________
________ Is hydrolyzed to ______ ________ ________
______ is stored for reuse
The rest of heme is converted to _______________, The liver secretes it into bile and bile is excreted in __________
Liver, spleen, hemaglobin
Globin, free amino acids
High-level of bilirubin in the blood giving a yellowish color to skin and whites of eyes, it may be a sign of rapid hemolysis , liver disease, or bile duct obstruction
Jaundice, and erythrocyte disorder
Excessive red blood cells
There are two types of polycythemia:
Which one is from red bone marrow cancer?
Which one is from high-altitude, dehydration, smoking, air pollution, emphysema, excessive exercise?
1. Primary polycythemia
2. Secondary polycythemia
What is the deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin called?
Three types of anemia, what are they?
Inadequate Erythropoiesis or hemoglobin synthesis
Red blood cell destruction
Which anemia causes iron deficiency anemia, pernicious anemia, aplastic anemia, hypoplastic anemia, kidney failure?
Which anemia causes hemorrhagic anemia from trauma or ulcer?
Which anemia causes hemolytic anemia, hereditary hemoglobin defects like sickle cell disease or thalassemia?
Inadequate erythropoietin or hemoglobin synthesis
Red blood cell destruction
What are three types of blood type interactions?
What type of interaction has molecules that are genetically unique to Each individual, occur on the surface of all cells and enable the body to distinguish its own cells from foreign matter?
What type of blood interaction Is where proteins are secreted from plasma cells in response to the detection of a foreign antigen?
What type of blood type interaction is where antibody binds To two or more antigens and stick them together?
What is determined by the hereditary presence or absence of antigens a and B on the red blood cells?
The ABO blood group
It has A antigens and anti- B antibodies?
Type a blood
B Antigens and anti-A antibodies
Type B blood
A and B antigens with no antibodies
Type AB blood
No antigens with both anti-A and anti-B antibodies
Type O blood
Mismatched blood causing immediate agglutination of donor red blood cells in recipient?
Another type of blood type is the RH group which is also, antigens on red blood cells. How many types are there?
If they have D antigen and no antibodies?
Rh+ & RH-
Have no antigen and anti-D antibodies?
RH- & Rh-
RH- mother with Rh+ fetus, I second fetus is severely anemic.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
What is the function of leukocytes or white blood cells?
Protection against infection and other pathogens like cancer
Where is the location of leukocytes?
They are made in the bone and marrow but spend only a few hours in the bloodstream and then migrate into the connective tissue and spend the rest of their lives there
What are the two main types of white blood cells?
These white blood cells contain granules that stain conspicuously what are they?
These white blood cells contain no granules, what are they called?
How many different types of granulocytes are there and what are their names?
How many different types of a agranulocytes are there and what are their names?
What percentage of circulating white blood cells do neutrophils account for?
60 to 70%
What do neutrophils do?
They release Antimicrobial chemicals and destroy bacteria
What percentage of circulating white blood cells does eosinophils account for?
2 to 4%
What do eosinophils do?
They are abundant in mucous membranes
They release enzymes that weaken or destroy parasites like worms
They phagocytize antibody-antigen complex, allergens, inflammatory chemicals
What percentage of circulating white blood cells do basophils account for?
Less than .5%
What Do basophil's do?
They secrete histamine which is a vasodilator and they secrete heparin which is an anticoagulant and thins blood
What percentage of circulating white blood cells do lymphocytes account for?
25 to 33%
What do lymphocytes do?
They destroy cancer cells, cells infected with viruses, and foreign cells.
They present antigens to activate other cells
They coordinate actions of other immune cells
They secrete antibodies
They serve in immune memory
What percentage of circulating white blood cells do (monocytes) account for when in the bloodstream or they are called (macrophages) when in tissue?
3 to 8%
What do monocytes/macrophages do?
Phagocytize Dead and dying host cells and foreign substances
In the leukocyte lifecycle colony forming units produce what?
White blood cell lines in bone marrow
Next In the leukocyte lifecycle Macra phages and lymphocytes secrete what in response to infections?
Colony stimulating factor
Then in the leukocyte lifecycle red bone marrow stores granulocytes and monocytes lymphocytes are stored in what?
What does penia mean?
When the white blood cell count is Below normal, this is called?
When the white blood cell count is above normal, this is called?
Cancer of heme a hemopoietic tissues producing extra high numbers of immature white blood cells is called?
Infection of B lymphocytes with Epstein-Barr virus is called?
Inside cells are called?
Outside cells are called?
What cells make memory?
Only B and T cells
Platelets and hemostasis control what?
What are platelets?
Fragments of cells
Platelets are fragments of what kind of cells?
Megakeratocytes (Which are found in bone marrow, they can't get out of the bone marrow so they send out little pieces called platelets)
The function of the platelets are?
They secrete vasoconstrictors
They form the platelet plug which seal small breaks in injured blood vessels
They secrete clotting factors which promote blood clotting
They initiate formation of clot dissolving enzymes
They secrete chemicals to attract white blood cells and secrete growth factors
In hemostasis three things happen, what are they?
Platelet plug formation
Coagulation (Blood clotting)
What is constriction of a broken blood vessel?
A vascular spasm
What causes a vascular spasm?
Injured smooth muscle of blood vessel causes vasoconstriction
How does the platelet plug formation work?
Platelets become spiny and adhere to collagen fibers
Platelets contract and draw the walls of the blood vessel together
Platelet plug mass of platelets Are formed
Platelets release factors which attract more platelets, etc.
What are the steps of coagulation or blood clotting?
Calcium, clotting factors, etc. combine to produce prothrombin activator
Prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin
Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin
Fibrin forms the frame work of the blood clot
The fate of blood clots
Platelets adhere to ________ and they _____________
Clot retraction-contraction pull edges of _________ ________ together.
__________ and ___________ __________ Secrete growth factor to stimulate repair damaged blood vessels.
The dissolution of a clot once tissue is repaired is called?
Platelets, endothelial cells
What are three ways to prevent inappropriate clotting?
When platelets do not adhere to smooth endothelium of healthy blood vessels, this is called?
When normal rates of blood flow dilutes spontaneously formed thrombin before clots form, this is called?
When anti-thrombin deactivates thrombin and heparin interferes with formation of prothrombin activator, etc., this is called?
An hereditary disease with deficiencies of a clotting factor causing bleeding in muscles and joints, this is called?
Abnormal clotting Of blood in unbroken blood vessels, this is called?
Blood clot that is traveling in the bloodstream
Embolus obstructing a blood vessel like the heart, brain, lung, or kidney
The liver is unable to synthesize clotting factors, causes severe bleeding
Widespread clotting in unbroken blood vessels
Disseminated intravascular coagulation