Chapter 18 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology II > Chapter 18 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (117):
0

What does the circulatory system consist of?

Heart, blood vessels, blood

1

What are four functions of the circulatory system?

1. Transport of O2, CO2, nutrients, waste, hormones and stem cells

2. Protection through inflammation, white blood cells, antibodies and plasma proteins

3. Regulation by fluid distribution, buffering the pH of the extracellular fluid, and body temperature

2

What is the liquid connective tissue that is composed of plasma and formed elements?

Blood

3

What percent of our body weight is blood?

8%

4

How much blood is in an adults body?

4 to 6 L

5

What temperature does blood remain at?

38°C

6

What is the pH range of blood?

7.35 – 7.45

7

What is the liquid portion of blood called?

Plasma

8

Plasma is what percent of the whole blood?

47 to 63%

9

Plasma is made up of four parts, what are they?

Serum
Water
Plasma proteins, which the liver produces most of
Other solutes

10

What is serum?

It is plasma with fibrinogen absent. Fibrinogen is a protein found in blood that is important for blood clotting

11

Water makes up what percentage of the plasma?

92%

12

Plasma proteins make up what percent of plasma?

8%

13

There are three types of plasma proteins, what are they?

Albumin
Globulins
Fibrinogen

14

Albumin contributes to what?

Albumin transports what?

Albumin buffers what?

Viscosity and colloid osmotic pressure

Lipids, calcium, hormones, etc.

Blood pH

15

Globulins are broken down into three types what are they?

Alpha, Beta and Gamma

16

What does the Alpha globulins do?

Transport solutes, promotes blood clotting

17

What does the beta globulins do?

Transport solutes, aids in defense

18

What does gamma globulins do?

Antibodies which combat pathogens

19

What does fibrinogen do?

Becomes a component of blood clots

20

The fourth part of plasma is other solutes, what does that include?

Nitrogenous wastes, electrolytes, nutrients

21

The production of blood is called?

Hemopoiesis

22

During embryonic development, stem cells from the yolk sac Migrate to where?

What happens next?

The bone marrow, liver, spleen, and thymus

The stem cells multiply and give rise to blood cells

23

From infancy onward red bone marrow produces what?

What are also produced in the lymphatic tissues and organs?

Formed elements

Lymphocytes

24

What do hemopoietic stem cells have the potential to develop into?

Multiple mature cell types

25

Specialized cells that produce one class of form elements are called?

Colony – forming units

26

What is another name for red blood cells or RBCs?

Erythrocytes

27

Erythrocytes make up what percentage of total blood volume?

37 - 52%

28

What are the two functions of red blood cells?

1. To pick up oxygen from the lungs and deliver it to the tissues

2. To pick up carbon dioxide from the tissues and unload it into the lungs

29

What shape are red blood cells?

Discoid or round with a thick rim and sunken center

30

What are red blood cells diameter?

7.5um

31

Do red blood cells organelles?

No

32

What determines blood type?

The glycolipids on the surface

33

What do spectrin and actin allow the cell to do?

Stretch, bend and bold

34

Red blood cells contain hemoglobin which do what?

Transports oxygen and CO2

35

What does hemoglobin do?

It's Red pigment gives red blood cells their color

36

Each red blood cell contains how many hemoglobin?

280 million

37

What does each hemoglobin consists of?

For protein chains conjugated with four heme groups

38

What does each him group do?

It binds one oxygen to an iron at it's center

39

What percent of carbon dioxide is transported down to the globin of hemoglobin?

5%

40

What are three of the most common measurements taken?

Hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and red blood cell count

41

Why are the quantities of erythrocytes and hemoglobin important?

Because they determine the amount of oxygen the blood can carry

42

What is hematocrit?

It is the Percent of red blood cells in whole blood, Which is 37 to 52%

43

What is the hemoglobin concentration of whole blood?

12 to 18 g/dL

44

What is the red blood cell count range?

(4.2-6.2 million RBCs/uL of blood)

45

In erythrocyte Homeostasis the kidneys detect hypoxemia and do what?

They increase erythropoietin output

46

In erythrocyte death and disposal, Red blood cells circulate for how many days?

Expired red blood cells break up in the _______ and ________ and ________ is released

Hemoglobin is degraded ________ and is separated from ________

________ Is hydrolyzed to ______ ________ ________

______ is stored for reuse

The rest of heme is converted to _______________, The liver secretes it into bile and bile is excreted in __________

120

Liver, spleen, hemaglobin

Heme, globin

Globin, free amino acids

Iron

Bilirubin, feces

47

High-level of bilirubin in the blood giving a yellowish color to skin and whites of eyes, it may be a sign of rapid hemolysis , liver disease, or bile duct obstruction

Jaundice, and erythrocyte disorder

48

Polycythemia

Excessive red blood cells

49

There are two types of polycythemia:

Which one is from red bone marrow cancer?

Which one is from high-altitude, dehydration, smoking, air pollution, emphysema, excessive exercise?

1. Primary polycythemia

2. Secondary polycythemia

50

What is the deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin called?

Anemia

51

Three types of anemia, what are they?

Inadequate Erythropoiesis or hemoglobin synthesis

Blood loss

Red blood cell destruction

52

Which anemia causes iron deficiency anemia, pernicious anemia, aplastic anemia, hypoplastic anemia, kidney failure?

Which anemia causes hemorrhagic anemia from trauma or ulcer?

Which anemia causes hemolytic anemia, hereditary hemoglobin defects like sickle cell disease or thalassemia?

Inadequate erythropoietin or hemoglobin synthesis

Blood loss

Red blood cell destruction

53

What are three types of blood type interactions?

Antigens
Antibodies
Agglutination

54

What type of interaction has molecules that are genetically unique to Each individual, occur on the surface of all cells and enable the body to distinguish its own cells from foreign matter?

Antigen (AG)

55

What type of blood interaction Is where proteins are secreted from plasma cells in response to the detection of a foreign antigen?

Antibodies (Ab)

56

What type of blood type interaction is where antibody binds To two or more antigens and stick them together?

Agglutination

57

What is determined by the hereditary presence or absence of antigens a and B on the red blood cells?

The ABO blood group

58

It has A antigens and anti- B antibodies?

Type a blood

59

B Antigens and anti-A antibodies

Type B blood

60

A and B antigens with no antibodies

Type AB blood

61

No antigens with both anti-A and anti-B antibodies

Type O blood

62

Mismatched blood causing immediate agglutination of donor red blood cells in recipient?

Transfusion reaction

63

Another type of blood type is the RH group which is also, antigens on red blood cells. How many types are there?

Three

64

If they have D antigen and no antibodies?

Rh+ & RH-

65

Have no antigen and anti-D antibodies?

RH- & Rh-

66

RH- mother with Rh+ fetus, I second fetus is severely anemic.

Hemolytic disease of the newborn

67

What is the function of leukocytes or white blood cells?

Protection against infection and other pathogens like cancer

68

Where is the location of leukocytes?

They are made in the bone and marrow but spend only a few hours in the bloodstream and then migrate into the connective tissue and spend the rest of their lives there

69

What are the two main types of white blood cells?

Granulocytes
Agranulocytes

70

These white blood cells contain granules that stain conspicuously what are they?

Granulocytes

71

These white blood cells contain no granules, what are they called?

Agranulocytes

72

How many different types of granulocytes are there and what are their names?

Three
Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils

73

How many different types of a agranulocytes are there and what are their names?

2
Lymphocytes
Monocytes

74

What percentage of circulating white blood cells do neutrophils account for?

60 to 70%

75

What do neutrophils do?

They release Antimicrobial chemicals and destroy bacteria

76

What percentage of circulating white blood cells does eosinophils account for?

2 to 4%

77

What do eosinophils do?

They are abundant in mucous membranes
They release enzymes that weaken or destroy parasites like worms
They phagocytize antibody-antigen complex, allergens, inflammatory chemicals

78

What percentage of circulating white blood cells do basophils account for?

Less than .5%

79

What Do basophil's do?

They secrete histamine which is a vasodilator and they secrete heparin which is an anticoagulant and thins blood

80

What percentage of circulating white blood cells do lymphocytes account for?

25 to 33%

81

What do lymphocytes do?

They destroy cancer cells, cells infected with viruses, and foreign cells.
They present antigens to activate other cells
They coordinate actions of other immune cells
They secrete antibodies
They serve in immune memory

82

What percentage of circulating white blood cells do (monocytes) account for when in the bloodstream or they are called (macrophages) when in tissue?

3 to 8%

83

What do monocytes/macrophages do?

Phagocytize Dead and dying host cells and foreign substances
"Present" antigens

84

In the leukocyte lifecycle colony forming units produce what?

White blood cell lines in bone marrow

85

Next In the leukocyte lifecycle Macra phages and lymphocytes secrete what in response to infections?

Colony stimulating factor

86

Then in the leukocyte lifecycle red bone marrow stores granulocytes and monocytes lymphocytes are stored in what?

Lymph tissue

87

What does penia mean?

Deficiency

88

When the white blood cell count is Below normal, this is called?

Leukopenia

89

When the white blood cell count is above normal, this is called?

Leukocytosis

90

Cancer of heme a hemopoietic tissues producing extra high numbers of immature white blood cells is called?

Leukemia

91

Infection of B lymphocytes with Epstein-Barr virus is called?

Infectious mononucleosis

92

Inside cells are called?

T cells

93

Outside cells are called?

B cells

94

What cells make memory?

Only B and T cells

95

Platelets and hemostasis control what?

Bleeding

96

What are platelets?

Fragments of cells

97

Platelets are fragments of what kind of cells?

Megakeratocytes (Which are found in bone marrow, they can't get out of the bone marrow so they send out little pieces called platelets)

98

The function of the platelets are?

They secrete vasoconstrictors
They form the platelet plug which seal small breaks in injured blood vessels
They secrete clotting factors which promote blood clotting
They initiate formation of clot dissolving enzymes
They secrete chemicals to attract white blood cells and secrete growth factors

99

In hemostasis three things happen, what are they?

Vascular spasm
Platelet plug formation
Coagulation (Blood clotting)

100

What is constriction of a broken blood vessel?

A vascular spasm

101

What causes a vascular spasm?

Injured smooth muscle of blood vessel causes vasoconstriction

102

How does the platelet plug formation work?

Platelets become spiny and adhere to collagen fibers
Platelets contract and draw the walls of the blood vessel together
Platelet plug mass of platelets Are formed
Platelets release factors which attract more platelets, etc.

103

What are the steps of coagulation or blood clotting?

Calcium, clotting factors, etc. combine to produce prothrombin activator
Prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin
Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin
Fibrin forms the frame work of the blood clot

104

The fate of blood clots

Platelets adhere to ________ and they _____________

Clot retraction-contraction pull edges of _________ ________ together.

__________ and ___________ __________ Secrete growth factor to stimulate repair damaged blood vessels.

The dissolution of a clot once tissue is repaired is called?

Fibrin, contract

Broken vessel

Platelets, endothelial cells

Fibrinolysis

105

What are three ways to prevent inappropriate clotting?

Platelet repulsion
Dilution
Anticoagulants

106

When platelets do not adhere to smooth endothelium of healthy blood vessels, this is called?

Platelet repulsion

107

When normal rates of blood flow dilutes spontaneously formed thrombin before clots form, this is called?

Dilution

108

When anti-thrombin deactivates thrombin and heparin interferes with formation of prothrombin activator, etc., this is called?

Anticoagulants

109

An hereditary disease with deficiencies of a clotting factor causing bleeding in muscles and joints, this is called?

Hemophilia

110

Abnormal clotting Of blood in unbroken blood vessels, this is called?

Thrombosis

111

A clot

Thrombus

112

Blood clot that is traveling in the bloodstream

Embolus

113

Embolus obstructing a blood vessel like the heart, brain, lung, or kidney

Embolism

114

The liver is unable to synthesize clotting factors, causes severe bleeding

Liver disease

115

Widespread clotting in unbroken blood vessels

Disseminated intravascular coagulation

116

Platelet count below normal

Thrombocytopenia