Chapter 25 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 25 Deck (161):
0

The selective intake of food?

Ingestion

1

Mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into a form usable by the body?

Digestion

2

Uptake of nutrient molecules into cells?

Absorption

3

Absorbing water and consolidating the residue into feces?

Compaction

4

Elimination of feces?

Defecation

5

The digestive tract has two anatomical subdivisions what are they?

Digestive tract and accessory organs

6

The muscular tube extending from mouth to anus?

Digestive tract

7

The teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, etc.?

Accessory organs

8

There are four tissue layers what are they?

Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis externa
Serosa (visceral peritoneum)

9

Lining of the digestive tract that secrete and absorbs?

Mucosa

10

Stratified squamous or simple Columnar?

Epithelium

11

Loose connective tissue layer?/

Lamina propria

12

Smooth muscles That tense the mucosa?

Muscularis mucosae

13

Thick layer of loose connective tissue containing blood vessels, lymph vessels, glands?

Submucosa

14

Nerve fibers that control movement of the muscularis mucosa and glands?

Submucosal plexus

15

Muscles the contract to propel residue through the digestive tract?

Muscularis externa

16

There are two types of muscularis externa what are they?

Circular muscle and longitudinal muscle
Myenteric plexus which is nerve fibers the control peristalsis

17

Thin layer of areola tissue and simple squamous?

Serosa or (visceral peritoneum)

18

The peritoneum

Covers the external surfaces of most digestive organs?

Visceral peritoneum

19

Serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity?

Parietal peritoneum

20

Connective tissue that loosely suspends the organs from the body?

Mesenteries

21

Two layered membrane extending from the body wall to digestive organs, then separates and passes around organs forming serosa?

Posterior mesentery

22

Mesentery from the liver to the stomach?

Lesser omentum

23

Mesentery that hangs from the stomach and loosely covers the small intestine?

The greater omentum

24

Mesentery that anchors the colon to the posterior abdominal wall?

Mesocolon

25

What are the six structures of the mouth?

Cheeks and lips
Tongue
Palate
Teeth
Saliva
Extrinsic salivary glands

26

Anatomy of the digestive system (Gastrointestinal or G.I. tract)

Ingestion of food, taste, chewing, speech, etc.?

Mouth

27

Retains food, articulate speech, suck and blow?

Cheeks and lips

28

Manipulates and tastes food?

The site of taste buds?

The median fold attaching the tongue to mouth?

Tongue

Lingual papillae

Lingual frenulum

29

Separates oral and nasal cavity?

Palate

30

What aids the tongue in holding and manipulating food?

The Palatine rugae

31

Projection of soft palate that helps retain food in mouth is called what?

The uvula

32

These help masticate or chew food?

Teeth or dentition

33

This is a pit or socket each tooth is embedded in?

Alveolus

34

Anchors the tooth in the alveolus?

Periodontal ligament

35

Tissue that covers the alveolar bone?

Gingiva or gum

36

The portion of tooth above the gum?

The crown

37

The portion of tooth below the gum?

The root

38

Bacteria in the mouth secrete acids and enzymes to digest components of teeth forming holes?

Dental caries (cavities) - brushing prevents

39

Gum inflammation calculus between Tooth and gum?

Gingivitis- flossing prevents this

40

Moistens and cleanses the mouth, begins chemical digestion?

Saliva

41

Enzyme that begins starch digestion?

Salivary amylase

42

Enzyme that digests fat after food is swallowed?

Lingual lipase

43

Binds and lubricates food?

Mucus

44

Enzyme that kills bacteria?

Lysozyme

45

Antibacterial antibody?

IgA

46

Extrinsic salivary glands

Beneath skin anterior to earlobe?

Halfway along the body of the mandible, medial to it's margin?

Floor of mouth?

What is salivation coordinated by?

Parotid gland

Submandibular gland

Sublingual gland

The medulla oblongata

47

The muscular funnel That connects the Oral cavity to the esophagus is called?

The pharynx

48

Transports bolus to the stomach?

Esophagus

49

A straight muscular tube 25 to 30 cm long?

Esophagus

50

Where is the esophagus located?

In the mediastinum, posterior to the trachea

51

An opening where the esophagus meets the stomach?

Cardiac orifice

52

A burning sensation produced by acid reflux into the esophagus?

Heartburn

53

There are three phases of swallowing what are they?

Buccal phase
Pharyngo- esophageal phase
Peristalsis

54

How is swallowing Coordinated?

By the swallowing center in the medulla oblongata

55

Tongue collects food, forms Bolus, and pushes it into the oropharynx, this is called what ?

Buccal phase

56

The bolus is blocked from the oral cavity, nasal cavity, and larynx what phase is this?

Pharyngo- esophageal phase

57

This pushes the bolus down the esophagus to the stomach?

Peristalsis

58

What is chyme?

The pulpy acidic fluid that passes from the stomach to the small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partly digested food.

59

The muscular sac in the upper left abdomen that holds up to 4 L of chyme is called what?

The stomach

60

What mechanically breaks up and liquefies bolus, begins chemical digestion of fat and protein?

The stomach

61

The stomach wall is made up of three things what are they?

Rugae
Muscularis which includes an inner oblique layer
Gastric pits

62

Longitudinal wrinkles of the mucosa and submucosa are called what?

Rugae

63

Depressions in the mucosa that lead to the gastric glands are called?

Gastric pits

64

The gastric glands produce 2 to 3 L of gastric juice or secretions per day composed mainly of what?

Water, HCl and pepsinogen

65

Protects The mucosa of stomach?

Mucus

66

Activates pepsinogen to pepsin and lingual lipase, breaks up connective tissue and cell walls, destroys pathogens?

Hydrochloric acid or HCl

67

The active Form is pepsin, it digest proteins?

Pepsinogen which is not active

68

This is essential for absorption of vitamins B12 by the small intestine?

Intrinsic factor

69

There are At least 20 different kinds Of these?

Chemical messengers

70

How often do contractions mix the bolus and gastric juices?

Every 20 seconds

71

How much chyme enters the duodenum at a time?

About 3 mL

72

A typical meal exits the stomach in about how many hours?
But it takes as long as ______ hours if the meal is high in fat?

Four hours
Six hours

73

The mucous coat, tight junctions, and replacement (cell division at the base of pits replace cells every 3 to 6 days) for what?

Protection of the stomach

74

Forceful ejection of stomach or intestine contents out of the mouth?

Vomiting

75

helicobacter pylori (bacteria) invade the mucosa of the stomach or duodenum and open the way for erosion by pepsin and HCl?

Peptic ulcer

76

Protrusion of part of the stomach into the thoracic cavity?

Hiatal hernia

77

There are three phases in the regulation of the gastric function, what are they?

Cephalic phase
Gastric phase
Intestinal phase (duodenum)

78

Gastric secretion stimulated by the sight, smell, taste or thought of food. The head is telling the stomach this is called?

Cephalic phase

79

Stomach telling itself to release gastric juices
ingested food stretches the stomach and results in stimulation of gastric secretion
Semi digested proteins stimulate the secretion of gastrin
Gastrin stimulates gastric secretions, accelerating protein digestion

Gastric phase

80

Peptides and amino acid in chyme stimulate the duodenum to secrete gastrin, which stimulates the stomach this is called?

Intestinal phase

81

Acid and fats trigger the duodenum to send an inhibitory signal to the stomach by way of the SNS, this is called?

Enterogastric reflex

82

The duodenum secretes ____________in response to fat in the chyme.

CCK stimulates _____________ ___________ And_____________ ______________.

CCK

Secretion bile and pancreatic enzymes

83

CCK or cholecystokinin

peptide hormone of the Gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion fat and protein is called?

84

What does the duodenum secrete in response to acid chyme?

Secretin

85

What does secretin do?

It stimulates the liver and pancreas to secrete bicarbonate

86

CCK and secretin suppress what?

Gastric secretion and motility

87

Is the liver part of the digestive tract?

No it is not part of the digestive tract but it is part of the digestive system.

88

Where is the liver located?

Inferior to the diaphragm, filling most of the right side of the abdomen

89

Microscopic anatomy of the liver

Hexagonal cylinders are called?

Vein that passes down the core of the lobule is called?

Cuboidal cells forming sheets radiating from the central vein are called?

Hepatic lobules

Central vein

Hepatocytes

90

Microscopic anatomy of the liver continued

Blood-filled channel between hepatocytes?

Vein, artery, and bile ductile at the corners of a lobule that bring in blood and transport out bile?

Bile that is made by the hepatocytes passes into where?

Hepatic sinusoid

Hepatic triad

Bile ductules

91

How many functions do the hepatocytes have?

Over 500

92

Some Functions of the hepatocytes include:

Filter blood from where?

Absorb what for storage?

Remove and degrade hormones, toxins and what else?

Filter blood from stomach and intestines and arterial blood

Absorb glucose, amino acids, iron and vitamins for storage

Remove and degrade hormones, toxins, bile pigments and drugs

93

Functions of hepatocytes

Store glucose as glycogen and breakdown what?

Produce and secrete?

Where is bile produced?

Secrete albumin, lipoprotein, clotting factor, angiotensinogen, etc.

Store glucose as glycogen and breakdown stored glycogen

Produce and secrete bile

Bile is produced in the liver

94

What is inflammation of the liver, usually caused by a virus called?

Hepatitis

95

This organ stores the bile

The gallbladder

96

It is a sac on the underside of the liver that stores bile?

The gallbladder

97

Yellow-green fluid that emulsifies fat?

Bile

98

Bile is made up of what?

Bilirubin and bile acids

99

A pigment derived from decomposition of hemoglobin?

Bilirubin

100

Steroids synthesized from cholesterol which aid in fat digestion and absorption?

Bile acids

101

When does bile enter the gallbladder?

When bile fills the bile duct and overflows into the gallbladder

102

Between meals what does the gallbladder Absorb?

Water and electrolytes from the bile

103

What percentage of bile acids are reabsorbed in the ileum and return to the liver?

80%

104

Hard masses of cholesterol, calcium carbonate, and bilirubin are called?

Gallstones

105

Exocrine- ducts

Pancreas

106

Where is the pancreas located?

Posterior to the stomach

107

Exocrine tissue secretes?

Pancreatic juices

108

How do enzymes exit the pancreas?

Through the pancreatic duct

109

Pancreatic juices in their jobs:

Neutralizes HCl from the stomach?

Digest proteins when they're converted to the active forms?

Digests starch?

Digest fats?

Digest RNA and DNA?

Sodium bicarbonate

Trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptidase

Pancreatic amylase

Pancreatic lipase

Ribnuclease and deoxyribonuclease

110

Where is the small intestine located?

It is a coiled mass filling most Of the abdominal cavity inferior to the stomach

111

The first 25 cm or 10 inches, begins at the pyloric valve and arcs around the head of the pancreas?

Duodenum

112

Stomach acid is neutralized here?

Duodenum

113

In the small intestine fats are broken up by the _______ _________.

Bile acids

114

Pepsin is _______________ By increase in pH

Inactivated

115

What chemically digest here?

Pancreatic enzymes

116

This comes next in the small intestine and it is 1 to 1.7 m long?

Jejunum

117

Most of the nutrient digestion and absorption occurs here?

Jejunum

118

The circular folds are tallest and richly supplied with?

Blood

119

The longest part, name means it's twisted. It's also the last part and is 1.6 to 2.7 m long?

Ileum

120

Lymphatic nodules in clusters are called?

Peyer's patches

121

Sphincter where ileum joins the cecum?

Ileocecal valve

122

Microscopic anatomy:

Transverse to Spiral ridges in mucosa and submucosa that slow chyme and promote mixing?

Fingerlike projections of mucosa covered with absorptive cells and goblet cells, lacteals and blood vessels are in the center of each?

Fuzzy brush border on absorptive cells that contain brush border enzymes (BBE)?

Circular folds

Villi

Microvilli

123

Microscopic anatomy continued:

Glands between the bases of the villi containing stem cells and cells that secrete defensive proteins?

Secretes bicarbonate rich mucus which neutralizes stomach acid?

Intestinal crypts

Duodenal glands

124

Intestinal motility:

Mixes chyme with secretions and brings it into contact with the mucosa?

Waves of contractions that milk chyme toward Colon?

Segmentation

Peristalsis

125

Inflammation of the intestine?

Crohn's disease

126

Where is the large intestine located?

It begins with the cecum down to the blind pouch

127

Where is the appendix located? And what is it populated with?

It is attached the lower end of the cecum and is populated with lymphocytes.

128

This organ forms a frame around the small intestine?

The colon (ascending to sigmoid)

129

Muscularis externa longitudinal fibers are concentrated into three thickened strips which caused it to bunch up, this is called?

Taenia coli

130

Muscular tube that holds feces?

Rectum

131

Terminal and of large intestine?

Anus

132

Does the large intestine have circular folds or Villi?

No

133

This digests cellulose, pectin, and other polysaccharides
Synthesize B vitamins and vitamin K
Produces intestinal gas (flatus)
Reabsorb water and absorbs electrolytes
Takes 12 to 24 hours to reduce the residue of a meal to feces?

Bacterial flora

134

Strong contractions that move residue, 1 to 3 times per day?

Mass movement

135

The process of defecation?

Feces stretch the rectum and stimulate structure receptors, which transmit signals to the spinal cord

A spinal reflex stimulates contraction of the rectum and relaxes the internal anal sphincter

Defecation occurs when the external anal sphincter relaxes

136

Salivary amylase digest starch into?

Oligosaccharides

137

In the small intestine pancreatic amylase digest oligosaccharides to ________________?

Maltose

138

Disaccharides are digested by brush border enzymes to ________________?

Monosaccharides

139

Monosaccharides are absorbed by The small and testing using (________ ) ____________ _____________ ___________ ___________ , Solvent drag, or_________ _______________

Sodium glucose transport protein
Facilitated diffusion

140

And the stomach, pepsin digests _____________ into shorter _________________?

Protein
Polypeptides

141

Brush border enzymes remove __________ ___________ from Oligopeptides?

Amino acid

142

Amino acid absorption uses _______ Dependent co-transporters and _____________.

Na+
Diffusion

143

Bile breaks ____ ________ In the _________ Into smaller droplets?

Fat globules
Chyme

144

Lipase digest triglycerides to ________________ And two free fatty acid?

.

145

in the small intestine ___________, Formed of bile acids, absorb various __________?

Micelles
Lipids

146

Micelles transport _________ To the surface of the intestinal cells and lipids ________ Into the cells?

Lipids
Diffuse

147

In the cells the triglycerides are _____________ In packaged with other lipids into __________ __________ __________?

Resynthesized
Protein-coated chylomicrons (balls of fat)

148

Chylomicrons Are released from the cells and enter the __________ of the _________

Lacteals
Villi

149

Nucleases hydrolyze DNA and RNA to _____________.

Nucleotides

150

Brush border enzymes digest the nucleotides to _______ ______, ___________ & _______________ _________

Phosphate ion
Sugar
Nitrogenous base

151

Products are transported across the cells by _______________ _____________.

Membrane carriers

152

What are the fat-soluble vitamins?

A, D, E, K

153

What are the water-soluble Vitamins?

B's & C

154

What vitamins are absorbed with other lipids?

Fat-soluble vitamins

155

What vitamins are absorbed by simple diffusion?

Water-soluble vitamins

156

How many liters a day of water does the digestive system receive?

9 L

157

How much water is absorbed by the small intestine?

8 liters

158

How many liters of water are absorbed buy the large intestine? The feces?

Large intestine 0.8 L
Feces 0.2 L

159

What happens when the large intestine and reabsorbs too little water?

Diarrhea

160

What happens when too much water is reabsorbed?

Constipation