Chapter 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (86):
1

What are the functions of blood?

transportation, regulate body temperature, body pH, fluid balance, protection

2

Study of blood

Hematology

3

What does blood transport?

formed elements, ions, dissolved molecules

4

How does blood regulate body temperature?

absorb heat from body cells as it passes blood vessels, heat is released at body surface

5

How does blood regulate body pH

contains chemical buffers (bicarbonate) that bind and release hydrogen ions

6

How does the blood regulate fluid balance?

Contains ions and proteins that exert osmotic pressure to pull fluid back to capillaries

7

How does the blood protect the body?

Has leukocytes, plasma proteins, protects against blood loss

8

How much does plasma make up in blood?

55%

9

How much do formed elements make up in blood?

45%

10

What is contained in the formed elements?

Buffy coat (WBC, platelets), red blood cells

11

Color of blood that is oxygen rich

Scarlet

12

Color of blood that oxygen poor

Dark red

13

What is the significance of volume of blood?

Maintain adequate blood pressure

14

What does thicker blood viscosity result in?

Decrease in blood flow

15

Determines osmosis, flow of fluid in or out of capillaries

Plasma concentration

16

What is the average temperature of blood?

100.4 F

17

What happens if pH is off in blood?

Plasma proteins are unable to carry out function

18

What is the average pH of blood?

7.35-7.45

19

Plasma without fibrinogens

Serum

20

What is plasma composed of?

Water, plasma proteins, dissolved molecules

21

What makes a majority of plasma?

Water

22

Mainting pH, viscosity, and fluid balance

Plasma protein

23

Made by liver, exert osmotic force on capillary walls, retains fluid in blood, transports hormones, ions and lipids

Albumin

24

Transportation of lipids and ions, contain gamma ___ which are antibodies

Globulin

25

Blood clotting protein

Fibrinogen

26

Enzymes and hormones

Regulatory proteins

27

Water and pH balance, neuron and muscle function

Electrolytes

28

What is included in electrolytes?

Na, K, Ca, HCO3, Cl

29

What are the types of nutrients in dissolved molecules and ions?

Glucose, amino acids, lactic acids, iron, lipids

30

What types of dissolved molecules/ ions are in the blood?

Electrolytes, respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes

31

Movement of large amounts of fluid and dissolved substances down a pressure gradient out of capillaries into tissues

Filtration

32

Movement of fluid out of tissues into the capillaries

Reabsorption

33

Physical force exerted by a fluid on a blood vessel/wall

Blood hydrostatic pressure

34

Pull of water back into the capillaries

Blood colloid osmotic pressure

35

What is colloid osmotic pressure dependent on?

Concentration of solutes

36

What kind of pressure is high on arteriole end?

Hydrostatic pressure

37

Difference between hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure

Net flitration pressure

38

Released from right atrium, causes vasodilation, increase urine output

Atrial natriuretic peptide

39

What is the stimulus for atrial natriuretic peptide to be released

Increase stretch of atrial walls

40

What is the stimulus for antidiuretic hormone?

Increase in blood concentration

41

Were is antidiuretic hormone released?

Posterior pituitary gland

42

What is the effect of antidiuretic hormone?

Increase water absorption, thirst, blood volume and blood pressure

43

Inactive hormone produced and released by the liver

Angiotensinogen

44

Found in high concentration of pulmonary capillaries

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

45

What is the stimulus for angiotensin?

Low blood pressure in kidneys or sympathetic stimulation

46

What is the effect of angiotensin II?

Vasoconstriction, increase in thirst, decrease urinary output, BP increases

47

Production of all types of blood in bone marrow

Hemopoiesis

48

Formation of erythrocytes

Erythropoiesis

49

What are the steps for erythropoiesis?

Hemocytoblast, myeloid, erythropoietin, erythrocytes

50

Production of leukocytes

Leukopoiesis

51

What are the steps for leukocytes?

hemocytoblast,myeloid, growth factor, leukocytes

52

What are the steps for lymphoid cells?

hemocytoblast, lymphoid, growth factor, lymphoid cell

53

Production of platelets

Thrombopoiesis

54

What type of shape do RBC's have?

biconcave

55

What does the biconcave shape help with?

traveling is easier, surface area increases

56

what is the lifespan for RBC?

120 days

57

Red pigmented protein that transports oxygen

hemoglobin

58

hemoglobin not bound to oxygen

Deoxyhemoglobin

59

hemoglobin bound to oxygen

Oxyhemoglobin

60

What is erythrocyte production controlled by?

erythropoietin

61

What is the stimulus for erythropoietin?

low levels of oxygen in blood

62

Where is erythropoietin released from?

kidneys

63

Increases RBC production in red bone marrow, levels of oxygen increase

Erythropoietin

64

What are erythrocytes phagocytized by?

Macrophages in liver and spleen

65

Enter blood used for protein synthesis

Globin

66

Stored in liver, transferred to bone marrow for new RBC

Iron

67

Converted to bilirubin, transported by alembics to liver to add into bile

Heme

68

Contains nucleus and organelles, 1.5-3x larger, able to to move into extracellular fluid

Leukocytes

69

Phagocytize, pathogens especially bacteria, release enzymes that target pathogen, most abundant

Neutrophil

70

Phagocytize antigen, antibody complexes and allergens, release chemical mediators to destroy parasitic worms

Eosinophil

71

Release histamine and heparin during inflammatory response, least abundant

basophil

72

Coordinate immune cell activity, produce antibodies, attack pathogens and abnormal/ infected cells

lymphocyte

73

Leaves blood, becomes macrophages and phagocytize pathogens, cellular debris, and dead cells

monocyte

74

Determines the percentage of each type of WBC's present in blood

Differential count

75

Smallest of formed elements

Platelets

76

Derived from megakaryocytes, helps stops blood loss

platelets

77

What is the life span for platelets?

8-10 days

78

Process of blood clotting

Hemostasis

79

What are the 3 steps to hemostasis?

vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation

80

What happens during vascular spasm?

Vasoconstriction

81

Molecules that line the endothelial wall; prevents platelet from sticking to the wall

Prostacyclin

82

What happens during the platelet plug formation?

Platelets stick to the exposed collagen fibers and change shape which forms a platelet plug

83

Initiated by damage inside of the blood vessel wall; platelets release clotting factor and cascade event occurs

Intrinsic pathway

84

Initiated by damage outside of the blood vessel wall; involves calcium and clotting factors

Extrinsic pathway

85

Contractile proteins within the platelet squeeze serum out of clot; clot shrinks

Clot retraction

86

Degradation of fibrin strands

Fibrinolysis