Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (86):
What are the functions of blood?
transportation, regulate body temperature, body pH, fluid balance, protection
Study of blood
What does blood transport?
formed elements, ions, dissolved molecules
How does blood regulate body temperature?
absorb heat from body cells as it passes blood vessels, heat is released at body surface
How does blood regulate body pH
contains chemical buffers (bicarbonate) that bind and release hydrogen ions
How does the blood regulate fluid balance?
Contains ions and proteins that exert osmotic pressure to pull fluid back to capillaries
How does the blood protect the body?
Has leukocytes, plasma proteins, protects against blood loss
How much does plasma make up in blood?
How much do formed elements make up in blood?
What is contained in the formed elements?
Buffy coat (WBC, platelets), red blood cells
Color of blood that is oxygen rich
Color of blood that oxygen poor
What is the significance of volume of blood?
Maintain adequate blood pressure
What does thicker blood viscosity result in?
Decrease in blood flow
Determines osmosis, flow of fluid in or out of capillaries
What is the average temperature of blood?
What happens if pH is off in blood?
Plasma proteins are unable to carry out function
What is the average pH of blood?
Plasma without fibrinogens
What is plasma composed of?
Water, plasma proteins, dissolved molecules
What makes a majority of plasma?
Mainting pH, viscosity, and fluid balance
Made by liver, exert osmotic force on capillary walls, retains fluid in blood, transports hormones, ions and lipids
Transportation of lipids and ions, contain gamma ___ which are antibodies
Blood clotting protein
Enzymes and hormones
Water and pH balance, neuron and muscle function
What is included in electrolytes?
Na, K, Ca, HCO3, Cl
What are the types of nutrients in dissolved molecules and ions?
Glucose, amino acids, lactic acids, iron, lipids
What types of dissolved molecules/ ions are in the blood?
Electrolytes, respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes
Movement of large amounts of fluid and dissolved substances down a pressure gradient out of capillaries into tissues
Movement of fluid out of tissues into the capillaries
Physical force exerted by a fluid on a blood vessel/wall
Blood hydrostatic pressure
Pull of water back into the capillaries
Blood colloid osmotic pressure
What is colloid osmotic pressure dependent on?
Concentration of solutes
What kind of pressure is high on arteriole end?
Difference between hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure
Net flitration pressure
Released from right atrium, causes vasodilation, increase urine output
Atrial natriuretic peptide
What is the stimulus for atrial natriuretic peptide to be released
Increase stretch of atrial walls
What is the stimulus for antidiuretic hormone?
Increase in blood concentration
Were is antidiuretic hormone released?
Posterior pituitary gland
What is the effect of antidiuretic hormone?
Increase water absorption, thirst, blood volume and blood pressure
Inactive hormone produced and released by the liver
Found in high concentration of pulmonary capillaries
What is the stimulus for angiotensin?
Low blood pressure in kidneys or sympathetic stimulation
What is the effect of angiotensin II?
Vasoconstriction, increase in thirst, decrease urinary output, BP increases
Production of all types of blood in bone marrow
Formation of erythrocytes
What are the steps for erythropoiesis?
Hemocytoblast, myeloid, erythropoietin, erythrocytes
Production of leukocytes
What are the steps for leukocytes?
hemocytoblast,myeloid, growth factor, leukocytes
What are the steps for lymphoid cells?
hemocytoblast, lymphoid, growth factor, lymphoid cell
Production of platelets
What type of shape do RBC's have?
What does the biconcave shape help with?
traveling is easier, surface area increases
what is the lifespan for RBC?
Red pigmented protein that transports oxygen
hemoglobin not bound to oxygen
hemoglobin bound to oxygen
What is erythrocyte production controlled by?
What is the stimulus for erythropoietin?
low levels of oxygen in blood
Where is erythropoietin released from?
Increases RBC production in red bone marrow, levels of oxygen increase
What are erythrocytes phagocytized by?
Macrophages in liver and spleen
Enter blood used for protein synthesis
Stored in liver, transferred to bone marrow for new RBC
Converted to bilirubin, transported by alembics to liver to add into bile
Contains nucleus and organelles, 1.5-3x larger, able to to move into extracellular fluid
Phagocytize, pathogens especially bacteria, release enzymes that target pathogen, most abundant
Phagocytize antigen, antibody complexes and allergens, release chemical mediators to destroy parasitic worms
Release histamine and heparin during inflammatory response, least abundant
Coordinate immune cell activity, produce antibodies, attack pathogens and abnormal/ infected cells
Leaves blood, becomes macrophages and phagocytize pathogens, cellular debris, and dead cells
Determines the percentage of each type of WBC's present in blood
Smallest of formed elements
Derived from megakaryocytes, helps stops blood loss
What is the life span for platelets?
Process of blood clotting
What are the 3 steps to hemostasis?
vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation
What happens during vascular spasm?
Molecules that line the endothelial wall; prevents platelet from sticking to the wall
What happens during the platelet plug formation?
Platelets stick to the exposed collagen fibers and change shape which forms a platelet plug
Initiated by damage inside of the blood vessel wall; platelets release clotting factor and cascade event occurs
Initiated by damage outside of the blood vessel wall; involves calcium and clotting factors
Contractile proteins within the platelet squeeze serum out of clot; clot shrinks