Chapter 17 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 Deck (45):
1

Maintenance of a stable internal environment by self-regulating physiological processes

Homeostasis

2

How is homeostasis maintained in the body?

endocrine and nervous systems

3

initial stimulus produces a response that opposes the original stimulus

negative feedback

4

initial stimulus that produces a response that reinforces the stimulus

positive feedback

5

what is the communication method of the endocrine system?

secrete hormones into blood

6

What is the target of stimulation for the endocrine system?

any cell with receptor for the hormone

7

what is the response time of the endocrine system?

slow; minutes to hours

8

what is the the effect of stimulation in the endocrine system?

change metabolic activity in cell

9

what is the range of effect in the endocrine system?

widespread effects throughout body

10

what is the duration of the response for the endocrine system?

long-lasting, may last after stimulus is gone

11

What are the general functions controlled by the endocrine system?

maintain homeostasis of blood composition and volume, control reproductive activity, regulate development, growth, metabolism, control digestive processes

12

How does the endocrine system maintain homeostasis of blood composition and volume?

Regulate amount of substances dissolved within the plasma

13

How does the endocrine system control reproductive activities?

Development, growth of reproductive system, expression, sexual behavior

14

How does the endocrine system regulate development, growth, and metabolism?

Regulate roles in cell differentiation and division, control metabolic processes during synthesis and degradation

15

How does the endocrine system regulate digestive processes?

influence secretory processes and movement of materials

16

hormones that circulate in blood throughout the body

circulating hormones

17

hormones that act locally

local hormones

18

what are the 2 types of local hormones?

paracrine, autocrine

19

act on neighboring cells?

paracrine

20

act on same cell that secreted them

autocrine

21

what type of solubility do steroid hormones have?

lipid soluble

22

enter cell membrane and bind to receptors inside target cell; may stimulate transcription of genes to make certain proteins (can alter structure or change metabolic activity when new protein is made)

Steroid hormone

23

Steroid hormone connected to a carrier molecule

bound hormone

24

steroid hormone not connected to a carrier molecule

unbound hormone

25

how fast is the response time for steroid hormones?

slower

26

what are some examples of steroid hormones?

testosterone, progesterone, estrogen, cortisol

27

Hormone and receptor bound together in the cell

hormone receptor complex (HRC)

28

HRC binds to DNA sequence in nucleus

Hormone response element

29

What does the hormone response element stimulate?

mRNA synthesis which interacts with ribosomes

30

What type of solubility do protein hormones have?

water soluble

31

Do protein hormones enter the cell directly?

no; hormone bind to receptor proteins in plasma membrane which creates signal transduction pathway

32

What is the response time for protein hormones?

fast

33

Modified amino acids

Biogenic amines

34

What are some examples of biogenic amines?

Adrenal gland and thyroid gland hormones

35

What is hormone synthesis and release controlled by?

reflexes

36

release one hormone in response to another hormone

Hormonal stimulation

37

Release one hormone in response to changing levels of nutrients

Humoral stimulation

38

release hormone in response from stimulation of the nervous system

Nervous system stimulation

39

What is target cell response dependent of?

Hormone concentration in blood and abundance of target cell receptors, influence exerted by other hormones

40

Increases number of receptors due to a low concentration of a hormone

up regulation

41

decreases number of receptors due to a high concentration of a hormone

down regulation

42

1 hormone reinforces the activity of another (work together)

synergistically

43

one hormone is dependent of another hormone (need each other)

Permissively

44

hormones have opposite effects on each other

Antagonistically

45

What are the 3 main steps in an interaction between protein hormone and target cell?

1.) 1st messenger binds to receptor
2.) G protein binds to activated receptor
3.) G protein is released