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Flashcards in Chapter 28 Deck (45):
1

organ that secretes testosterone

Interstitial cells in seminiferous tubules

2

Secretes androgen binding protein

Sustentacular cells in seminiferous tubules

3

What does a increase level of testosterone result in?

Spermatogenesis, sex drive, development of secondary sex characteristics

4

Results in development of follicle, secondary sex characteristics, maintain body temperature, bone density, regulate production of cholesterol

Estrogen

5

Production of sperm within seminiferous tubules

Spermatogenesis

6

Diploid cells that remain dormant until puberty for males

Spermatogonia

7

What happens to the spermatogonia at puberty?

Begin dividing by mitosis

8

Undergo meiosis I and II to produce 2 spermatids

Primary spermatocytes

9

Located near the lumen of seminiferous tubules

Spermatids

10

Final stage of spermatogenesis

Spermiogenesis

11

Mature sperm, composed of acrosome cap, contains digestive enzymes, tail for locomotion, mid piece that contains mitochondria

Spermatozoa

12

Composed of seminal fluid from accessory glands combined with sperm

Semen

13

Alkaline fluid, fructose, prostaglandins, helps with going through the vagina

Seminal Vesicles

14

Citric acid, mucin, seminal plasm, prostate specific antigens,

Prostate gland

15

Mucin for lubrication

Bulbourethral gland

16

Substance that causes the vasodilation of erectile tissue, compress venules, increases blood flow

Nitric oxide

17

Period of time of intense feelings of pleasure and expulsion of semen

Orgasm

18

Occurs when sympathetic nervous system stimulates smooth muscles of the urethra

Ejaculation

19

Time where men cannot attain another erection

Refractory period

20

Oocyte + follicle cells

Ovarian follicle

21

Primary oocyte, single layer of flattened follicle cells

Primordial follicle

22

Primary oocyte + one of more cuboidal follicle cells = granolas cells

Primary follicle

23

Primary oocyte + many layers of granulosa cells + thecal cells + antrum

Secondary follicle

24

Secondary oocyte + many layers of granulosa cells + thecal cells + antrum

Vesicular follicle

25

Remnants of follicle, collapsed folds of granulosa cells

Corpus luteum

26

Degenerated corpus luteum

Corpus albicans

27

Maturation of primary oocyte to secondary oocyte within the ovary

Oogenesis

28

FSH and LH stimulate primordial follicles to mature into primary follicles, thecal cells secrete androgens, granolas cells convert androgens into estrogen

Follicular phase

29

Release of oocyte from vesicular follicle; stimulation of hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland surge in LH

Ovulation

30

LH converts remaining follicle cells become cuprous lute, progesterone and estrogen are secreted to stabilize and build uterine lining to prepare for implantation.

Luteal phase

31

What happens to the corpus luteum if no fertilization occurs?

slowly degenerate next 10-12 days

32

What does the corpus luteum become after it degenerates?

Corpus albicans

33

as estrogen and progesterone decrease ___ decreases

LH

34

what happens to the corpus luteum if fertilization occurs?

Stays that way for 3 months, estrogen and progesterone increase, degenerates after placenta is formed

35

Outer layer of uterus

Perimetrium

36

Middle layer of uterus

Myometrium

37

Inner layer

Endometrium

38

Development of endometrium

Uterine cycle

39

Sloughing off functional layer of endometrium, only occurs if fertilization does not occur

Menstrual phase

40

Development of new functional layer, secondary and vesicular follicles developing= increase in granulosa cells

Proliferative phase

41

Increase thickness of functional layer, increase vascularization, develop uterine glands

secretory phase

42

Provides nutrition until placenta forms

Uterine glands

43

During the sexual excitement of females, where does blood flow increase?

Mammary glands, clitoris, labia, wall of vagina

44

When is the onset of menopause?

45-55

45

Lack of ovarian follicles or maturation has halted for at least a year; decrease in estrogen/progesterone= no uterine lining buildup and no menstrual cycle

Menopause