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Flashcards in Chapter 20 Deck (69):
1

Composed of simple squamous epithelium and releases substances to regulate contraction/relaxation of tunica media

tunica interna

2

used for vasodilation and vasoconstriction, made of smooth muscle

tunica media

3

made of areolar connective tissue, anchors to other structures

tunica externa

4

smaller tunica internal, thick tunica media, thin tunica externa

arteries

5

large tunica interna/lumen, thin tunica media, thick tunica externa

veins

6

largest arteries containing lots of elastin in tunica media, used to stretch and recoil

elastic arteries

7

Where are elastic arteries found?

aorta, pulmonary trunk, common carotid artery, subclavian artery, common iliac artery

8

medium sized arteries that distribute blood to certain body parts, used for vasodilation and vasoconstriction more smooth muscle

muscular arteries

9

Where are muscular arteries found?

most arteries

10

Smallest, think tunica media, always vasoconstrictor

arterioles

11

where are arterioles found?

off of muscular arteries

12

term for always vasoconstricted

vasomotor tone

13

smallest veins; companion vessel to arterioles, drains capillaries

venules

14

malfunction in valve of vein, blood pools up

varicose veins

15

companion vessels to muscular arteries, most have valves that dump blood to large veins

medium veins

16

companion to elastic arteries, most don't have valves because they're near the heart; act as blood reservoirs

large veins

17

connect arterioles to venules, optimal for exchange of substances between blood and body tissue

capillaries

18

What is the lining of continuous capillaries?

simple squamous epithelium

19

what is the basement membrane of continuous capillaries?

have small gap junctions called intercellular clefts

20

allows small solute movement

intercellular clefts

21

where are continuous capillaries found in?

capillaries within muscle, CNS, skin, thymus, lungs

22

Thin areas on endothelial layer called fenestrations which allow plasma proteins and small solutes to pass through

fenestrated capillaries

23

Where are fenestrated capillaries found?

small intestine, ciliary process, choroid plexus, kidney, endocrine glands

24

Have large openings between them, incomplete layer which allows for passage of large solutes

Sinusoids

25

Where are sinusoids located?

red bone marrow, liver, spleen, adrenal gland, parathyroid gland

26

contract and relax involuntarily in capillary bed

precapillary sphincter

27

Pressure of fluid on wall on capillary

hydrostatic pressure

28

What pulls water towards higher concentration of solute in capillary bed

osmotic pressure

29

Difference between osmotic and hydrostatic pressure

Net filtration rate

30

What are vasodilators caused from?

high CO2 low nutrients

31

Substances that dilate arterioles and relaxation of precapillary sphincter

vasodilator

32

force of blood against the inner walls of blood vessels

blood pressure

33

substances that constrict arterioles and contract precapillary sphincters, decrease blood flow

vasoconstrictors

34

highest blood pressure

arterial blood pressure

35

maximum pressure on blood vessel wall; arteries stretch

systolic pressure

36

minimum pressure on blood vessel wall; arteries recoil

diastolic pressure

37

net pressure created by the heart each time it contracts; only arteries; measures stretch and recoil capabilities

pulse pressure

38

how do you find pulse pressure?

systolic - diastolic pressure

39

average blood pressure within arterial system; makes sure tissues are adequately perfused

mean arterial pressure

40

change in blood pressure from 1 end of the BV to another end

BP gradient

41

no pulses of blood, pressure lowered compared to arteries, pressure drops more when moving through capillary bed

Capillary blood pressure

42

pressure is very low b/c walls of veins are thinner, little stretch/recoil

venous blood pressure

43

rate of blood flow back to the heart

venous return

44

pump within limbs that when muscles contract, blood moves up from legs and arms to abdominopelvic area

skeletal muscle pump

45

What are the 2 pumps that assist in venous return?

skeletal muscle, respiratory

46

Pump within thoracic cavity

respiratory pump

47

Decreases pressure and moves blood to thoracic cavity

inhale

48

increases pressure and moves blood into heart

exhale

49

amount of friction the blood experiences as it is transported through blood vessels

resistance

50

opposition to flow that blood encounters in vessels

peripheral resistance

51

What are 3 factors that affect resistance?

blood viscosity, blood vessel length and radius

52

What happens to resistance if blood viscosity is thick? thin?

thick=more
thin=less

53

What happens to resistance of vessel length is longer?

more resistance

54

What happens to resistance of blood vessel diameter is small? large?

small=more
large=less

55

increase cardiac output = MAP ____

increase

56

Vessel diameter increase = MAP _____

increase

57

resistance decreases = _____ blood flow

increase

58

Where is the cardiovascular center located?

medulla oblongata

59

Stretch receptors change, changes AP frequency

baroreceptors

60

how much stretch in aortic arch

aortic arch baroreceptors

61

how much stretch in internal carotid artery

carotid baroreceptors

62

regulate heart activity (cardiac output)

cardiac center

63

Affects the myocardium and SA node to increase heart rate

sympathetic nerve activity

64

affect SA node and AV node to decrease heart rate

Parasympathetic activity

65

regulates the degree of vasoconstriction and vasodilation of blood vessels

Vasomotor center

66

What hormones increase blood pressure?

epinephrine and norepinephrine

67

What is norepinephrine and epinephrine stimulated by?

Sympathetic nervous system

68

increase in stretch= ___ action potentials

more

69

decrease in stretch = ____ action potentials

less